Sunday, March 31, 2019

The Decline of Education in America

The Decline of Education in AmericaThe f e truly(pre nary(prenominal)inal) in States is the greatest awkward in the world is a clich asserted everywhere. angiotensin-converting enzyme would reasonably expect the greatest country in the world to deal the worlds or so educated citizens-except just one and only(a) thing that simply is non true. Author suss out Bauerlein in his nurse of account The Dum trump extension lays out a compelling argument backed with a dizzying number of statistics that America is on the decline grooming whollyy, threatening the future of our country. How depose linked States be the greatest country in the world when it is ranked 29th in maths and science? Or when 53% of mellowed school seniors scored below fundamental in historical companionship on an NAEP history exam (Bauerlein 17)? bring forward of what leave alone happen when those high school seniors meet the real world. They go forth be the voting block and pool to draw from to becom e our choose officials who make life and death decisions for our country, and what go external happen then? Bauerlein blames these patently terrifying statistics on the digital age millennials were born in, and how students today no foresightfuler feel the need to retain as frequently association when they potbelly just flip out their iPhones and go look it up online when they need to. This is a symptom of the declining social and political potency Neil carrier wave talks about in his take hold comical Ourselves To Death, and that the value of knowledge on the decline.The multiplication of today does not c atomic number 18 as lots today about the Arts, Science, History, and Math they are more than interested in things kindred what Kim Kardashian is doing today, or when Beyonces new album is coming out. You digest pick out about every millennial who the Kardashians are and they leave alone almost alship cornerstoneal give you the correct answer, hitherto when you ask serious questions such(prenominal) as what powers the executive branch holds- some will draw a blank. This is because the millennial generation requires advanced stimuli due to our digital age. The human chief has plasticity in the sense that it will adapt to the environment it is placed in, and the millennial promontory has molded to the instantaneous access of knowledge from our computers, video recordings, and phones because of that millennials demand that comparable aim of stimulation everywhere else in their bouncys. In Steven capersons book Everything large Is hot For You, he argues for what he c solelys the Sleeper Curve that the digital age of habitual agriculture and with it the network, movies, tv, and mental picture games are actually intellectually nutritional (9). The near popular culture of today can be very beneficial, such as how word-paintinggames can improve occupation solving, or how telly remains set plays can improve unfavorable think ing. That probably seems ask it is in stark personal line of credit to what was said previously, even the arguments of all three authors are not reciprocally exclusive. Bauerlein, Postman, and Johnson all ultimately represent extremes. They do however get a few things right Bauerlein is correct in stating there is a emergence overall knowledge deficit, Johnson is correct in motto popular culture has positive benefits, and Postman is right about our increasingly connected inn diminishing the value of training. Reality is within a happy mean(a) of all three. In short, the digital age is not necessarily copious-grown for you however, it is impossible deny the educational decline in our monastic order.In Mark Bauerleins book The Dumbest genesis, one of his dominant pieces of evidence to show our decline in knowledge is how fewer people today occupy than ever before, and he is partially correct according to pew look into the percentage of Americans who read at least(pren ominal) one book in the last course of instruction fell from 79% in 2011, to 71% in 2015. Not exclusively that, 27% of the people polled had not read a single book in the last year (Raine). These statistics seem troubling, book meter reading is declining, however overall reading is not, rather it has increased. Reading does not necessarily fuddle to come from a book, and this is what Bauerlein take outes. Young adults in 2015 spent twenty septette hours and thirty six proceeding a calendar week online a week on average, triple the mere ten hours and twenty four minutes a week recorded in 2005 (Anderson). To be a proficient user of the internet you moderate to be reading constantly the master(prenominal) reason reading of traditional books is declining is because books are beingness supplemented by some some oppositewise forms of reading.Mark Bauerlein is incorrect in stating reading as a social unit is declining, however the position people are steering away from boo ks is in itself a serious concern. Even Steven Johnson, the author by far most supportive of digital media out of the three of them, words in his book Everything Bad is Good For YouThe very fact that I am presenting this argument to you in the form of a book and not a television drama or video game should make it clear that I conceptualize the printed word remains the most powerful vehicle for conveying change information (21)Johnson is one hundred percent correct books are the best medium for conveying complex ideas, as well as unwavering detail and content. Not only that, the ease of access to books cannot be matched as of yet by any other form of media. For movies, television, video games, and the internet you need to buy all kinds of hardware and services which limits the potential recipients of those forms of media. With books, all you need to know how to is read even money is not necessary to read, anyone can go to their local library and check out a book for free. Books are tranquillize ultimately the heart and soul of culture, without them the other forms of media would not be possible somebody had to write a book on how to make movies, television, video games, and how to code for the internet. While books are still the best medium for passing on information to the next generation, other mediums are getting more advanced to the point where they can be true fulfilling compliments to books, rather than a replacement for books, such as video games. boob tube games are the newest medium to enter our digital age, and what started as a simple a few pixels on the screen spirited around in virtuality handle in the game Pong, has blossomed into a full fledged new form of media capable of endowing knowledge, and cognitive benefits such as improving problem solving, attention, memory. This is the narrative Johnson supports Bauerlein and Postman would balk at that judgment, saying video games infringe upon a proper education or that the information in ga mes has no real world use and is a impostor context. However, a subscribe to done by RMIT University lends a great pith of support to Johnsons claims. The results of the study indicate that online gaming can sharpen math, science, and reading skills amongst teenagers. RMIT Associate Professor Alberto Posso investigated the study results, statingStudents who play online games almost every day score 15 points above the average in math and 17 points above the average in science When you play online games youre solving puzzles to campaign to the next level and that involves using some of the general knowledge and skills in math, reading and science that youve been taught during the day. (Science perfunctory)Going even a step further, he said T each(prenominal)ers should consider incorporating popular video games into teaching so long as theyre not reddened ones. This is a rather stunning assessment which supports Johnsons Sleeper Curve argument that television, movies, and video games are in fact good for you after all (9). Video games can stimulate the mastermind in similar ways books do, and perhaps in some ways far more than books. Video games tend to defend a non additive structure in the sense that you can go from point A to point B however you want, remote books you are fully immersed in the experience not just mentally, but audibly and visually as well, and you must make choices that affect the outcome of the game. This is the key as to wherefore video games have all of these positive benefits.Let us induce a look at a toughened example of a video game series that truly stimulates the mind metal Gear. The Metal Gear storyline is one of the most complicated in any game, rivaling many books, movies, and TV shows the lore stretches from 1964 to 2014 taking place in a slightly alternate honesty across nine canonical games, each of which take many hours to complete in addition to hours devoted to cutscenes explaining the story. genius of the gam es, Guns of the Patriots, has a guinness world record breaking seventy hours of cutscenes and over 400,000 rowing in the script, more words than some books to fully comprehend the enlightenment of the story, the characters, the factions and all the relationships between them, the player has to think very critically and very deeply. The games deal with complex and serious themes such as race, revenge, language, nuclear proliferation, genealogy, globular politics, etc. to name a few and the games pull off those themes in meaningful ways. Not only is the storyline mentally stimulating, so is the gameplay. In the newest iteration, The Phantom Pain, players are placed in an open world sandpit and are tasked with missions to complete, ranging to everything from collecting intelligence on the enemy, to rescuing prisoners of war. The open world personality and the plethora of weapons and digs gives the player freedom to conquer any objective as they see fit. Should the mission occur du ring the day or at iniquity? Is going in silent with suppressed weapons and choosing a path of least resistance best, or is going in and out as steadfast as possible guns blazing preferable? These are all questions pose to the player. To achieve desirable outcomes the player must exercise his or her brain and think critically to employ an effective strategy. As Steven Johnson says in his book, this critical thinking exercises the brain similar to how algebra does and translates to reality in the form of change planning skills, problem solving, attention, logic, and more (40).It is clear that video games do stretch out meaningful benefits, though video games are not always alone beneficial in nature. To give an example, a hot topic of bowl over that has gone on for many years is whether or not violent video games contribute to furiousness, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence in the real world. The American Psychological Association came out with a report in 2 015, statingThe research demonstrates a consistent relation between violent video game use and increases in aggressive behavior, aggressive cognitions and aggressive affect, and decreases in prosocial behavior, empathy and sensitivity to aggression (Calvert)In all fairness, the report does not combine video games to criminal behavior, and does not include outside factors such as pre-existing psychological conditions and the environment the person playing the game lives in, all of which may have been influential to the outcome of the report However, it establishes a pertain between violent video games and aggressive behavior, though indirect at best. Another important factor not included in the study is the age of the player. Children are very easily influenced a shaver emergence up is learning important skills like how to determine right from wrong, empathy, and incorrupt values. It is fairly easy to see how incredibly violent games like golden Theft Auto where a player can g o highjack and run over as many pedestrians as possible in a crowded city on a whim can have a negative effect on a child growing up. To reduce this effect, young children should not play video games, and video game developers should be careful in how they utilize violence. That being said, violence can have a positive impact on a storyline if there is a good reason for it to be there, such as to make the death of an allied character more impactful unlike games such as Grand Theft Auto and Mortal Kombat which have violence for the sake of violence with no real purpose to it other than for pure shock value. The deciding factor as to how video games will benefit society depends on how they are utilized, the medium in itself is not foredoomed. single of the mediums that preceded video gaming was television, and it provides many of the same benefits video games do such as improved planning skills, problem solving, attention, logic etc.. television engages the viewer to think with its programming with everything from documentaries, to dramas. In talking about the television drama 24, Steven Johnson argues in his book you have to focus to follow the plot, and in focusing you are exercising the part of the brain that maps social networks (115). Again, this is much like algebra in a sense most people will never need to know things like the quadratic formula in their lifetime, however those things are still required material in high school because they are a mental exercise, improving reasoning skills, problem solving, and more. It isnt so much about the content of these shows as it is about the cognitive exercises involved in watching them. Mark Bauerlein does not acknowledge these benefits, contention naturally that television is but a distraction from real educational subject matter. Neil Postman has a similar view, stating in his book idiotic Ourselves to Deathtelevisions way of acute is uncompromisingly hostile to typographys way of knowing that television s conversations promote incoherence and triviality that the phrase serious television is a contradiction in terms and that television speaks with only one contumacious voice-the voice of entertainment. (80)Perhaps this is a correct assessment regarding some televised media like reality shows and cable news, though the blanket assessment that all television is incoherent and trivial is wrong. legitimate it is true one of televisions goals is to entertain, however so are literary works of fiction that have been around for millennia. What makes novels exchange for profit not incoherent and trivial? For the most part, excluding programming like news and sports, television is just literature put on the screen. recall of how many shows and movies you could rewrite as a book in fact, many of the greatest works of television originated from books. For example, the 1962 novel The Man in The gamy Castle by Philip K. Dick was adapted as a television drama by Amazons streaming service in 2 015, and it is far from being incoherent or trivial. The show takes place in alternate reality 1962, where the Germans and Japanese win World struggle Two and conquer the United States, with the victorious axis powers splitting up the country between the great Nazi Reich and the Japanese Pacific States. The show goes to great lengths to display the viciousness of the Germans and Japanese people have come to expect with no political or personal freedoms, torture, summary executions, persecution of minorities, etc. brilliantly showing the fight back for everyday Americans to survive. It punches the viewer right in the gut reminding people of what could have been, and the harrowing path fascism leads us by drawing out our emotions. Sure all of it is done for entertainment, however the meats are nutritional, positive, and even educational. The underlying message is coherent and never trivial be grateful for the world we live in, even with all its problems.Television can be an incre dible tool to provide people with knowledge, though it can just as easily be a poor influence. The entertaining tint of television can have negative effects depending on the content, Neil Postman was not only wrong in his assessments. Take for instance reality television with shows like Keeping Up with The Kardashians, these shows are marketed as being reality unlike shows such as 24 which any viewer knows is entirely fictional.An member from Scholastic Scope had this to say about some of the false stereotypes propagated by reality televisionAnd then there are the stereotypes. Are all girls obsessed with clothes and spray tans? Are all boys obsessed with getting toned abs? Thats what many of the most popular shows would have you think. Plus, some experts say these shows send a dangerous message that being stupid and self-loving is fun. It can make you rich and famous (Scholastic Scope)This is the reality of reality television. today what happens when your average teenage girl se es the plastic surgery laden figures of the Kardashian sisters? They can get the false ideas on how the female body is normally mantic to look, contributing to things like eating disorders and other psychological issues the very same issue impersonateing magazines have struggled with for years. This is just one of many examples of how television can be dangerous and send the wrong messages when used improperly, curiously to our youth.So if technology is ultimately not the cause of our downhill scroll in knowledge, what is? The answer is our millennial generation is so seemingly sluggish because they feel they can afford to be dumb. Neil Postman, Mark Bauerlein, and Steven Johnson all miss the larger historical context they focus too heavily on immediate societal trends. Our decline in knowledge and education is merely a small part of a generational cycle of societal moods in what is called The Strauss-Howe Generational Theory a theory of generational phases called turnings in A merican history outlined in the book The Fourth routine by William Strauss and Neil Howe. According to the authors, there are four turnings each measure an average of twenty years the high, the awakening, the unraveling, and finally the crisis, after which the cycle is specify and an enlightened high generation is born. To see how this ties into our educational decline, let us go back in American history to The Great natural depression and World War Two. Due to a series of poor political decisions building on themselves and outright ignorance to the issues of the world, The Great Depression and World War Two came to be life was tough with people crowding dope kitchens, shortly followed by men going off to Europe and the southward Pacific to fight and die- a crisis. The generation who lived through those misadventures vowed never again, and precious knowledge and culture as a means of never retell the mistakes of the past- a high . Next, the baby boomers were born, and they wer e raised having not experiencing just how awful life can be like their parents did this ended up proper an era of peace and enlightenment. We know this generation best for the hippie movement, John Lennon, Woodstock, the civil rights movement, etc.- an awakening a time of spiritual exploration and anarchy against the now-established order (Hines). These baby boomers had children, whom we now call generation x. An unraveling began, with an increasingly troubled era in which individualism triumphs over crumbling institutions (Hines). The very foundations of our culture were questioned with ignorance and political extremism on the rise. Today with the millennial generation, Strauss and Howe claim we are now go into the fourth turning- the crisis, a time of turmoil and uncertainty. We saw a glimpse of this play out most recently in the 2016 presidential elections, one of the most hotly contested elections in American history both(prenominal) sides of the political aisle spewed ign orance, and extremism with the result dividing our nation further apart to an almost unprecedented level. In short, hard times create strong people, strong people create good times, good times create puny people, and weak people create hard times and perhaps Bauerlein would turn back that the millennial generation is weak. The strength and educational ethic of every society in the world is directly tied to the hardships that society has had to endure, and the littleons learned from them. there may be no better example of this than with the Judaic slew a people that have quite possibly endured more hardship than any other culture over the course of thousands of years. Today less than .02% of the global population is Jewish, yet 22% of Nobel Prize winners are Jewish (Schuster), and the tiny country of Israel puts out more engineers and scientists per capita than any other country in the world (Flo resigna). As a Jewish person myself, I was taught from a young age that education and respect for the past is deep-seated in our culture because if it werent, the consequences could be catastrophic. History shows us that education is essential for the continuity of any society.Perhaps Strauss and Howes ideas are somewhat simplistic however they do show an unmistakable pattern in history, and how these cultural and educational declines form. Bauerlein was correct when he said in his book If you ignore the traditions that acres and ennoble our society, you are an incomplete person and a negligent citizen(233). follow for history and culture is an integral part of any healthy society, and we are ignoring the past and the cultural traditions that grounded our United States. As the hardships of history seem more and more distant, we end up feeling entitled, and with that sense of entitlement the drive to do better and learn more decreases. Ultimately our digital age is not the cause of our decline in knowledge, as the cycle will manifest itself in any way it sees f it. That is not to say our downward spin around in knowledge is uncorrectable Neil Howe when asked of the implications of the turnings on education, offered his solution as to how education should change for the millennial generationThe answer lies in getting away from at-risk and damage control in education, and moving to a new model based on confidence and teamwork and mastery of the future. Thats what young Millennials want. Thats where we all should want to go. (Howe)Perhaps this is the basis for our happy medium between Bauerlein, Postman, and Johnson. An educational system tailored for the specific needs of the millennial generation, in which basic academics such as the arts, math, science, and history are sustained and taught while keeping in mind the technologies of today so we can be the masters of our future. One thing however, is clear if we do nothing, our societal knowledge deficit will only increase, and therefore our hopes and dreams for a prosperous future will decr ease. working CitedAnderson, Elizabeth. Teenagers Spend 27 Hours a Week Online How Internet Use Has Ballooned in the Last Decade. The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 11 May 2015, Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.Bauerlein, Mark. The Dumbest Generation How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future or, Dont Trust Anyone under 30. The Dumbest Generation How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future or, Dont Trust Anyone under 30, Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, refreshing York, NY, 2009, pp. 17-233.Calvert, Sandra, et al. APA Review Confirms Link Between Playing Violent Video Games and Aggression. American Psycological Assosiation, 13 Aug. 2015, Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.DeSilver, Drew. U.S. Students A cademic Achievement unflustered Lags That of Their Peers in Many Other Countries. Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center, 15 Feb. 2017, Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.Florida, Richard. The Worlds Leading Nations for Innovation and Technology. CityLab, The Atlantic monthly Group, 3 Oct. 2011, Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.Hines, Andy. Generational cycles predict a coming crisis. The Futurist, July-Aug. 1997, p. 14+. Academic OneFile, Accessed 20 Mar. 2017.Best-selling generations author Neil Howe to speak and release new book at ACTE Orlando Convention. Techniques, vol. 78, no. 6, 2003, p. 50+. Academic OneFile, /ps/ Accessed 20 Mar. 2017.Johnson, Steven. Everything Bad Is Good for You How Popular Culture Is qualification Us Smarter. Everything Bad Is Good for You How Popular Culture Is Making Us Smarter, Riverhead Books, New York, 2005, pp. 9-115.Schuster, Ruth. Why Do Jews Win so Many Nobels?, Haaretz Daily Newspaper Ltd., 9 Oct. 2013, Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.Postman, Neil. Chapter 5 The Peek-a-Boo World. Amusing Ourselves to Death Public Discourse in the Age of Showbusiness, Penguin Books, New York, 1985, p. 80.Rainie, Lee, and Andrew Perrin. roughly Fewer Americans Are Reading Print Books, New Survey Finds. Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center , 19 Oct. 2015, Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.RMIT University. Online gaming can boost school scores Video games sharpen math, science and reading skills among 15-year-olds, but social media reduces test results. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 August 2016. Reality TV Making You Stupid?. Scholastic Scope, vol. 59, no. 3, 11 Oct. 2010, pp. 14-15. EBSCOhost,

Learning Perspectives in Education

encyclopedism Perspectives in Education training Perspectives, Perceptions and PerformanceLearning is a vague, important term. When menti wizd, common associations atomic number 18 very much relegated to the association with young school s obtainrren and non so often as one of the nigh intriguing and inquired upon aspects of psychological science.Prior to further elucidation, as if oft the case, the examen of nurture merits a definition. though it turn backms to be a word of axiomatic meaning, because it is hard to study directly, somewhat further refining must be utilized. This self-evident acquisition of familiarity can solely be c beful with portal verbotencomes and should be observationally able to be distinguished from reflexive or instinctive responses. A behavioral outcome might consist of a high test score, a rat that quickly presses a lever, an employee that receives subvention compensation or whatever other number of commonly conceived ensamples.In discuss ing the nature of encyclopedism, at that place are perhaps two or deuce-ace popularly dominant perspectives which are essential to understand in the ecesis of any reasonably comprehensive review. These perspectives include the behaviouristic, the companionable key outing, and the cognitive schools. Though it becomes ostensible that these three influences are not without critique and that, even at bottom from each one, there exists what might be labeled f legal actions, their fundamental contributions cannot be ignored.behavioristic psychologyThe first of these perspectives is the behaviorist. In this scheme, there are two broad branches unequivocal conditioning and slavish conditioning. In classical conditioning, learning occurs by the labor union of the stimulation with a desired response of the subject field. Experimentally, this is an exemplar of Pavlovs storied dogs and the learning that results is a consequence of the learned associative relationship and is no t dependant on(p) upon any action by the subject. The alternative to this manner is instrumental conditioning in which the subject gets to choose. By this, it is meant that the reenforcement is contingent upon what the subject chooses as evidenced by the behaviorally discernibly different response.Within the farming of behaviorism, one key contributor and voluminous icon of psychology in general is Thorndike. As a function of his experiments with cats in boxes for which they had to perform some specific behavior to escape, he concluded that learning was a member of an incremental nature and that their was became a neural link amongst the arousal and response. This was evidenced by his successive experiments in which the cats became smarter, that is, they learned what specific behavior was required in order to be released. As the number of trials progressed, there was an inverse relationship with the time needed to escape.The work of mule skinner furthered the attainment of b ehaviorism by his great elucidation of the four broad categories of reinforcementApplication of a positive remark Commonly referred to as a reward, this involves the presentation of something the subject desires. removal of a positive excitant An example of this for children would be time-out. Theoretically and often in macrocosm, this method is effective to extinguish unwanted behaviors. In fact, according to Skinner, the most effective authority to eliminate a behavior is to ignore it, thus removing any extraneous reinforcement.Application of a negative stimulus Typically referred to as penalization, this involves the application of an unwanted or noxious stimulus to shape behavior.Removal of a negative stimulus This is the be the restoration of normal conditions upon boundary of an unenviable action or commission of some desired behavior. A parenting example would be the removal of a grounded condition upon acceptable remorse of some past action.In addition Skinner identified other(prenominal) type of reenforcement that he labeled a general reinforcer due to its wide applicability. Money is one such item and is so labeled because subjects desire it regardless of their state of depravity. This is in contrast to provender which is not an adequate stimulus unless one is hungry, that is deprived of food.Another theorist, Guthrie provides however additional insight into the theories and methods of learning. champion of his key contributions to the guinea pig is with his Law of persistency. In this, Guthrie proposes eloquently that, a combination of stimuli which has been accompanied by front will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that tendency in other words, an action in a given military position will likely be repeated when the subject finds themselves in a similar situation.The Cognitive ApproachWhile there is the well-known look at of nature versus nuture that runs finishedout science, such polarity also exists within the fi eld of psychology and learning. A stark(a) behaviorist would insist that so-called choices are really nothing more than an animal-like actions in all behavior is reducible to stimulus and response type mechanisms. As behaviorism has significantly added to our judgement of the valet de chambre condition, there exist alternative perspectives that are also kinda effectual. One such branch of the more cognitive division of psychology is referred to a Gestalt psychology.From this perspective, the insight that the brain is not the passive recipient of stimulus but actively involved in the perception and construction of reality is posited. Further, Gestalt psychologists attest that a given stimulus exists not in closing off but in the total context of the perception of the subject. For example, Wertheimer, the father of Gestalt psychology, cited the example of two blinking lights being able to present the perception of apparent motion. This as well as the popular psychology examples i n which a authentic line has the appearance of being longer than another depending on the lines and figures around it speaks to the tenet of Gestalt psychology that an experience as a whole, is greater than the sum of the individual parts that make it up. From these and other example, the idea that the estimate is able to shape its own perspective of reality by chastity of its own beliefs about how things should be or how they are desired to be is a major enduring contribution of the Gestalt movement.Though not a cognitivist, Pi senescets contribution to learning could arguably be filed in this area. curiously noted for his contributions to developmental psychology and thus much appropriate for child kind of than adult learning, Piaget declared the existence of fairly defined level of development. During these periods, a child was able to learn specific skills and acquire authorized abilities with not being able to reach certain others due to the suppuration and innate abilit ies that of a developing brain. For example, the period of approximately seven to twelve years old is referred to as the concrete operations period. During this range, reasoning and puzzle solving abilities are generally limited to concrete phenomena that can be seen and observed rather than abstract in nature.Observational or cordial LearningThough cognitive in nature, these theories remove been treated one at a time due to both their easy discernment by more pure cognitive perspectives and by the distinctness of the contributions of the key theorists. Up to this excite, the models of learning that suck been postulated, whether behaviorist or cognitive, have been focused on the subject only. pitiful somewhat further away from the clean and pure perspective of behaviorism, social learning theory attests that the focus must extend beyond the subject to the contextual influence on others. In describing the views of social learning, some of the most controversial and informative experiments in modern psychology have be conducted. For example, Banduras famed prison experiment in which subjects were put into a mock prison with some subjects assigned to be guards while others were but prisoners. The experiment was terminated azoic due some of the subjects taking their cases a bit too seriously.In another classic experiment, children were shown a film showing an adult acting aggressively by strike a doll or shown an adult being kind to a doll. These same children later modeled the demo behavior, whether aggressive or not. such(prenominal) findings are reinforced by LeBons work on company psychology in which individuals and groups are influenced by others to model or go after certain implicit behaviors.Implications on Health Well-BeingAnimals, depending on the species, have a number of unlearned, innate behavioral responses to certain stimuli. Examples such as sea turtles that automatically head toward the sea upon birth on a sandy beach to dogs that see k the warmth and scent of their mothers while they cannot see after birth abound in literature. On the other hand, earth seem to come into the world as a blank designate to be written upon by flavours experiences. It is this aspect of benevolence that makes learning play such a pivotal role in our development and beyond.Further, after even a short perusal of the respective(a) schools of thought, it becomes apparent that the human animal is complex enough to warrant the reflection and application of all perspectives. By doing so, it is possible not only achieve specific learning aspirations but also to achieve the avoidance of certain other issues that may occur from situations in which learning does not occur. One such example of this is the child who is raised with excessive penalisations to shape behavior. fit in Skinner and other behaviorists, this can produce a malad experted adult who has horny issues. These emotional issues may manifest themselves in any manner of b ehaviors such as avoidance of others or difficulties in relationships to, at the extreme, sociopaths who act out their frustrations upon others.From a cognitive perspective, much of the therapeutic overture of this school is in bringing the cognitive errors that a person commits to their conscious awareness. These errors in thinking occur when a person creates false assumptions or acts utilizing illogical conclusions in choosing their responses to stimuli. Extreme but common examples are those who express feelings of being a total bereavement and consider suicide. In most cases, such errors are much more subtle but just as subtle with regards to their ability to alter behavior.Clearly, learning plays not just a role in the development of humans but is an ongoing factor in the success of daily living. Psychologists, human resource specialists, trainers and managers and supervisors of any contrast are vitally concerned about learning in the workplace. As the business world grows m ore sophisticated, new skills are needed. These new skills must be taught, learned and success richly applied for the mutual success of the individual and the enterprise. As such, lessons from all three perspectives are quite relevant. By utilizing key components of each perspective and theorist, one can throw out a flexible figure of speech by which there is greater understanding and application to additional circumstances. It is with this goal of greater applicability that a number of specific contributions are describe belowThorndike on EducationThorndike had much to say in regards to educational process and the efficacy of teaching methods and styles. This insight is relevant regardless of the age of the learner.Consider the situation the student faces.Consider the response the wish to bring together with this situation.Form the bond.All else equal, from no bond that will have to be broken.All else equal, from as few bonds as possible.All else equal, form bonds in the way t hey are required to act later.Favor the situations and responses that naturally occur in life (Hergenhahn and Olson 2005, p. 72).The bond that Thorndike refers to is the previously mentioned neural bond that exists between the stimulus and the response. Though these recommendations contain a number of Thorndikes behavioral precepts, a key learning for typical occupational settings is the last advisement. reverberating of the idea that if one is going to train for a five-kilometer road race, it is at some point necessary to train by running reinforces the point that training for a specific t imply should, as much as possible for effective learning, resemble the task itself.Skinner on penalizationJust as Thorndike lectured on educational process, the iconic behaviorist Skinner advises in regards to punishment. This topic is perhaps most salient to child-rearing, an occupation in which there exists considerable frustration that might be at least slightly abated by the application of a learning theory. From a behaviorist standpoint, punishment is the application of a negative or undesired stimulus in order to shape behavior. While commonly utilized, Skinner cautions that punishmentCauses unfortunate emotional byproductsIndicates what an organism should not do rather than what it should do.Justifies inflicting aggravator on others.Being in a situation where previously penalise behavior could be engaged in without being punished may excuse a child to do so.Punishment inflicts aggression toward the lowering agent and others.Punishment often replaces one undesirable response with another (Hergenhahn and Olson 2005, pp. 92-94).Guthrie on breaking garmentssAlso a behaviorist, Guthrie addressed the issue of habits. From a behavioral perspective, habits are simply a specific response to a large number of stimuli in which the greater the number of the stimuli, the greater the medium of the habit. As habits can be a significant annoyance and mayhap quite maladaptive, insight into their extinguishment is valuable. jibe to Guthrie, the following four methods are useful and validThreshold Method In this method, the technique of warming up to an idea is utilized rather than the sudden presentation of the stimulus in order to attenuate the response.Fatigue This method demonstrates the futility of a response to gain the desired results but simply letting a subject take for granted themselves out when a stimulus is presented.Incompatible Response Method This method relies upon the pairing of a stimulus which generates an unacceptable response with a stimulus in which the response is not compatible with the unacceptable response. Such action has the effect of lessening the ability of the former stimulus to evoke and undesirable response. Though this is a behavioral percept, it has the net effect of forcing the subject to cognitively rethink the pairing and its meaning.Sidetracking This method is one in which a habit in not so much eliminated as s imply avoided. By removing the stimulation, one can effectively sidetrack the response (Hergenhahn and Olson 2005, pp. 220-224).Wertheimers Facts versus PrinciplesAccording to Wertheimer, the father of Gestalt psychology, real learning occurs not by the simple employment of facts but rather by the understanding of underlying principles. As apt illustration of this idea is the following exampleA school examiner who was impressed by the children he had observed but wanted to ask one more question before departing.How many hairs does a vaulting horse have? he asked.Much to the amazement of both the inspector and the teacher, a nine-year old boy raised his hand and upshoted, 3,571,962.How do you know that your answer is correct? asked the inspector.If you do not believe me, answered the boy, count them yourself.The inspector broke into laughter and vowed to secern the story to his colleagues when eh returned to Vienna. When the inspector returned the following year for his one-year visit, the teacher asked him how his colleagues responded to the story. Disappointedly, the inspector said, I wanted very much to tell the story but I couldnt. For the life of me, I couldnt phone how many hairs the boy said the horse had. (Hergenhahn and Olson 2005, p. 281).Enough said.Piagets Learning depends on failureThough we generally judge the success of learning by achievement, the noted developmental psychologist Piaget suggests that perhaps this should be reconsidered to some extent. Specifically, Piaget indicated that learning occurs only when the dilemma of not learning or a failure to learn is present. To elaborate, the inability or failure of previous learning to account statement for a given set of circumstances makes it possible for new situations to be assimilated and accommodated, thus providing the raw material for learning to occur. Important to this assimilation and accommodation, or learning process is the ability of the teacher to gradually challenge rather than overwhelm the individual ((Hergenhahn and Olson 2005, pp. 302-303).Bandura Human Monkeys are DifferentIn early behaviorist experiments, animal subjects did not look at other animals to learn adaptive strategies. While more recent experiments have indeed demonstrated this phenomena, is was the failure of these early experiments that led Bandura to postulate model learning.In this system, Bandura explained and predicted human behavior by such as means that the stimulus was concurrently internal and external to the subject. This is, to some extent, a cognitive behavioral approach and aptly illustrates the importance of positive role models and the influence that others can have upon learning and behavior.ConclusionHuman learning simply cannot be fully understood by the use of a single perspective. It is not that any one paradigm is incorrect but rather each is only a partial representation of the range and diversity of the human condition. By availing oneself of multiple perspect ives, one becomes the beneficiary of significantly more vast knowledge by which life, through work-, school- or home-life can be improved through the application of numerous principles and precepts designed to foster adaptive responses to the stimulation life brings.Works ConsultedHergenhahn, B. and M. Olson. (2005). An Introduction to the Theories of Learning, 7th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US Pearson Prentice-Hall.Le Bon, G. (1914). The Crowd A Study of the Popular Mind. London T.F. Unwin.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Value of the Biopsychosocial Model of Health

Value of the Biopsycho social Model of HealthVarious approaches of rehabilitation base on scientific models are implemented to cope with disabilities, impairments, dis palliates (Lorenzo, M, 1999, p.1). Before the execution of Biopsychosocial model, Biomedical model was traditionally practised and heavily apply upon assessing patient. (Engel, 1977, p.130).Engel (1977, p.131) states that biomedical model illustrates the alteration of particular biochemical is commonly assessed in a specific diagnosis in relevant to the pattern of the disease. He withal mentioned that additional concepts and frames of reference should be taken into account.Biopsychosocial model is said to be an improved model than biomedical model as it is a focal point of examining patients at the two important interlinked systems mind- form connection. (Engel, 1977, p.132). This model was proposed by psychiatrist George Engel in a 1977 article in Science. This biopsychosocial model treats patients from biologica l, psychological and sociological aspects of body (Lakhan, 2006). Unlike biomedical model, psychological and sociological was non being underscore as it solely examine the biological aspect (Erskine et al, 2003, p.173).The most transparent dissimilarity of Biopsychosocial model than Biomedical model is that Biopsychosocial model encourages patients active fellowship whilst Biomedical model is not much a model which promotes patient-centred allot in terms of appreciating the individual extremitys and right of patients, understanding patients distemper and health care experiences, and embracing them within effective kinds which enable patients to come in in clinical reasoning to a greater extent(prenominal)(prenominal) (Ersser, 2008, p.68).Biopsychosocial model approach was used during a clinical placement Mdm. C went for her first give-and-take in physiotherapy department after being referred case from an orthopaedics bear upon to a physical therapist. Mdm. C is a 56 ol d age old housewife who is diagnosed with shoulder osteoarthritis. Shoulder osteoarthritis typically affects patients over 50 years old and it is more common in patients who have a narration of prior shoulder injury as well as familial predisposition (Cluett, 2009). Mdm. C was having language barrier with the physiotherapist responsible, Mr. S as she is in workmanlike in speaking English and Malay. Immediately, Mr. S finds another appurtenant who is able to communicate to her in Mandarin (Chinese). Despite the barrier faced, Mdm. C was greeted nicely by the Mr. S. Based on the physicians report, Mdm. Cs condition set up the symptoms of shoulder osteoarthritis inflammation and degeneration of cartilage, pain with activities, limited clutch of motion, stiffness of the shoulder, swelling of the joint, tenderness around the joint, and a feeling of excoriation or catching within the joint (Cluett, 2009). Both objective and unobjective assessment is carried out to initiate the treat ment as well as to identify and confirm the biological aspects. (Petty, 2004)While assessing Mdm. C subjectively, Mr. S communicates with Mdm. C whole-heartedly, questioning her nigh her background, her career, social life, daily habitual routines. Petty and Moore (2007, p. 130) states that this would ease the physiotherapist to investigate more about the initial cause of the crack as well as to treat her effectively in achieving the short-circuit-run and permanent finis in rehabilitation. strong-arm therapist practised active earreach duration listen with heart of compassion, patience and without any judgmental view. Physiotherapist should also choose words carefully and meaningfully without stepping into patients borderline by using open-ended questions to search for discipline until full understanding is achieved. susceptible verbal and non-verbal communication is witnessed throughout the seance (Petty and Moore, 2007, p.130).Physiotherapists attempt to enquire more abo ut Mdm. C is successful as Mdm. C became more easygoing in exposing and describing more about her complains of pain. This indirectly allows the physiotherapist to gather more information for a better rehabilitation outcome at ease. Engel (1977, p.130) states that more information needs to be gathered during consultation as physiotherapists need to find out about the patients biological signs, psychological state, their feelings and beliefs about the illness, and social factors such as their relationship with families and larger community. Thus, the interview process acts as a mean for the patient to institutionalize as much information as possible not solely based on physical symptoms, but how the illness affects the patient. (Engel, 1977, p.130)Physiotherapist started the objective assessment with the examination of coach of Mdm. C in sitting and standing, noting the posture of the shoulders, head and neck, thoracic sticker and upper limbs. Physiotherapist notes bony and soft t issue contours around the region. He checked the alignment of the head of humerus with the acromion as this can give clues about the possible mechanical insufficiencies. Mr. S pinch-grips the anterior and posterior aspects of the humerus, passively corrects any asymmetry to determine its relevance to the Mdm. Cs problem (Petty, 2006, p. 212). heading assessments are accompanied by other tests and after all been carried out, Mr. S had drafted out the treatment plan for Mdm. C.Mr. S then carefully and soft explained the treatment to Mdm. C and set a short-term goal for her as it would not be a burden for Mdm. C in short duration. Mdm. C also benefits from getting a better idea of her conditions, treatment alternatives, and expected improvements. Sullivan (2007, p.11) states that anticipated goal and expected outcome can name in predicted change in overall health, risk reduction, and prevention and optimisation of patient satisfaction. He also states that this would further encoura ge faster reco genuinely. Mr. S then applied hot packs on Mdm. Cs shoulder as heat helps to prepare the tissues for stretching and should be performed prior to any exploit sessions (Anderson, 2009). Time duration for 10-15 minutes are used for the treatment and several(prenominal) layering were used to wrap to hot pack to avoid burning of skin. Thermo therapy is believed to liberate muscle tightness and to relief pain, reduce muscle spasm, and increases blood circulation (Inverarity, 2005).Mr. S then teaches Mdm. C simple exertions to facilitate her restricted movements. Before jump the treatment, Mr. S demonstrated the exercise slowly and gave short, clear and easy-to-understand instructions and explanations about the treatment without using scientific jargons and labels to enhance the understanding of Mdm. C as wells as to minimize the emotional distress (O Sullivan and Precin, 2007, p.56). This consider patients sanction into account as physiotherapist informed and explained the treatment options to patients before commencing the exercise onto patient herself. The exercises presumptuousness are finger walk, towel stretch, and armpit stretch. The goal of these exercises is to stretch the shoulder to the point of tension without pain (Anderson, 2009).Mr. S monitored Mdm. Cs psychological aspects properly by observing Mdm. Cs facial look and body language. Facial expressions act as an indicator of patients psychological affection(Petty, 2004). It would somehow affect the quality of exercises performed by patient. By observing patients facial expression, it tells physiotherapist how they are feeling while doing exercises and whether they are comfortable doing it or not (Petty, 2004). For instance, if Mdm. C feels like grownup up due to fatigue and disappointment doing exercises, Mr. S would act as a motivator to affect her to conduct her efforts by encouraging and supportive words like, Dont stop, youre almost there, Keep going, youre doing very wel l, You can do it, its easy, Hang in there, just a while more, Youre doing very good, come lets finish it together, this indirectly would comfort the patients psychological discomforts and motivate her to be on the right track. Mr. S enquired again, if Mdm. C is comfortable with the given exercises to ensure that Mdm. C knows what she is doing and why is she feeling this way, and how does she cope with it if she feels like giving up due to tiredness. These covered the psychological aspects (Petty and Moore, 2007, p. 131).Though Mdm. C came unsocial for this treatment, she was encouraged by both Mr. S and his assistant who are competent in Mandarin throughout the session. Thus, Mdm. C knows that she is not doing it alone. When the treatment session is over, Mr. S gave Mdm. C few sheets of paper containing the exercises she did earlier. Mr. S contacted Mdm. Cs nigh kin, her daughter to stress the importance of home exercises and to ensure that Mdm. C eternally does that at home, as well as to encourage the family members to participate in the exercises in helping Mdm. C to improve her muscle strength and beg off the symptoms. Mr. S educates the family members about precaution and safety at home. Mr. S powerfully encouraged family members to accompany Mdm. C for her next scheduled treatment so to overcome the language barrier and to make the family involved. These cover the sociological aspects of treatment. Sullivan, (2007, p. 52) states that kindly support helps the increased of self-esteem, adjusting and adapting oneself with disability.Biopsychosocial model takes into consideration of patients involvement in treatment, patients needs, and patients relationship with clinician during a clinical practise as this model comprises the biological, psychological, sociological aspects of a patient. To conclude, biopsychosocial model is practical, applicable, and agreeable as it brings enormous improvements on patients condition. (1497 words)

Friday, March 29, 2019

Wireless Charging Of Mobile Phones

Wireless Charging Of Mobile PhonesAbstract -With mobile promises befitting a basic fictional character of life, the recharging of mobile sound batteries has always been a problem. The mobile phones vary in their talk time and battery under check according to their manufacturer and batteries. All these phones irrespective of their manufacturer and batteries acquit to be put to recharge by and by the battery has drained out. The primary(prenominal) accusatory of their manufacturer and battery make. In this paper a in the buff marriage offer has been do so as to make the recharging of the mobile phones is done mechanic all(prenominal)y as you talk in your mobile phone This is done by purpose of atom-bombs. The micro-cook signal is transmitted from the transmitter along with the substance signal using special kind of forward passs called slotted wave guide antenna at a frequency of 2.45gigahertz. There atomic make out 18 minimal additions, which have to be made in the mobile handsets, which ar the addition of a sensing element, a rectenna and a filter. With the in a higher place setup, the need for separate chargers for mobile phones is eliminated and makes charging universal. and so the more you talk, the more is your mobile phone charged With this proposal the manufacturers would be able to remove the talk time and battery standby from their phone specificationsINTRODUCTIONTHE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUMTo start with, to know what a spectrum is when white stir up is shone through a prism it is separated out into all the influence of the rainbow this is the visible spectrum. So white tripping is a mixture of all colour. Black is NOT a colour it is what you get when all the well-to-do is taken away. Some physicists pretend that light consists of tiny particles which they call photons. They kick the bucket at the speed of light (what a surprise). The speed of light is more or less 300,000,000 meters per trice. When they hit some liaison t hey might spring off, go right through or get absorbed. What happens depends a bit on how much energy they have. If they bounce off something and then go into your eye you will seethe thing they have bounced off. Some things like glass and Perspex will let them go through these materialsare transparent. Black objects absorb the photons so you should not be able to see black things you will have to think more or less this one. These poor old physicists get a little bit disquieted when they try to inform why some photons go through a leaf, some are reflected, and some are absorbed. They say that it is because they have diverse amounts of energy. Other physicists pretend that light is made of waves. These physicists measure the length of the waves and this helps them to explain what happens when light hits leaves. The light with the longest wavelength (red) is absorbed by the green stymie (chlorophyll) in the leaves. So is the light with the shortest wavelength (blue). In betwee n these two colours there is green light, this is al impoverisheded to pass right through or is reflected. (Indigo and over-embellished have shorter wavelengths than blue light.)Well it is easy to explain some of the properties of light by pretending that it is made of tiny particles called photons and it is easy to explain other(a) properties of light by pretending that it is some kind of wave.The visible spectrum is practiced one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These electromagnetic waves are made up of two parts. The first part is an electric field. The second part is a magnetic field. So that is why they are called electromagnetic waves. The two fields are at right angles to each other.THE MICROWAVE sphere atom-bomb wavelengths range from approximately one millimeter (the thickness of a pencil lead) to thirty centimeter (about twelve inches). In a microwave oven, the radio waves generated are tuned to frequencies that lowlife be absorbed by the feed. The food absorbs the energy and gets warmer. The dish holding the food doesnt absorb a evidential amount of energy and stays much cooler. Microwaves are emitted from the Earth, from objects much(prenominal) as cars and planes, and from another because microwave energy stub put over haze, the atmosphere. These microwaves lavatory be detected to give information, such as the temperature of the object that emitted the microwaves. Microwaves have wavelengths that can be measured in centimeter The longer microwaves, those closer to a foot in length, are the waves which heat our food in a microwave oven. Microwaves are rock-steady for transmitting information from one infinite to light rain and snow, clouds, and smoke. Shorter microwaves are apply in remote sensing. These microwaves are used for radar like the Doppler radar used in hold forecasts. Microwaves, used for radar, are just a few inches long. Because microwaves can penetrate haze, light rain and snow, clouds and smoke, these wa ves are good for viewing the Earth from aloofness Microwave waves are used in the communication industry and in the kitchen as a way to cook foods. Microwave radiation is heretofore associated with energy levels that are usually considered harmless except for people with measure makers.Here we are going to use the S circumstances of the Microwave Spectrum.Microwave frequency bandsDesignation Frequency rangeK phone 18 to 26 gigacycle per secondKa mountain 26 to 40 GHzQ Band 30 to 50 GHzU Band 40 to 60 GHzV Band 46 to 56 GHzW Band 56 to 100 GHzL Band 1 to 2 GHzS Band 2 to 4 GHzC Band 4 to 8 GHzX Band 8 to 12 GHzKu Band 12 to 18 GHzThe frequency selection is another important aspect in transmission. Here we have selected the license free 2.45 GHz ISM band for our purpose.The Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio bands were originally re actiond internationally for non-commercial use of RF electromagnetic fields for industrial, scientific and medical purposes.The ISM ba nds are defined by the ITU-T in S5.138 and S5.150 of the Radio Regulations. Individual countries use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations in national radio regulations.In recent years they have as well as been used for license-free error-tolerant communications applications such as wireless LANs and Bluetooth900 MHz band (33.3 cm) ( excessively GSM communication in India )2.45 GHz band (12.2 cm) IEEE 802.11b wireless Ethernet also operates on the 2.45 GHz band. transmitter DESIGNThe MAGNETRON (A), is a self-contained microwave oscillator that operates differently from the linear-beam organ pipes, such as the TWT and the klystron. View fig(1) is a simplified drawing of the magnetron. CROSSED-ELECTRON and MAGNETIC fields are used in the magnetron to produce the high- queen output required in radar and communications equipment.The magnetron is classed as a semiconductor junction rectifier because it has no grid. A magnetic field located in the du mmy between the cuticle (anode) and the cathode exercises as a grid. The plate of a magnetron does not have the identical physical appearance as the plate of an ordinary electron tube. Since accomplished inductive-capacitive (LC) networks become impractical at microwave frequencies, the plate is fabricated into a cylindrical copper block containing resonant cavities that serve as tuned circuits. The magnetron make differs considerably from the conventional tube base. The magnetron base is short in length and has large diameter leads that are carefully sealed into the tube and shielded. The cathode and strand are at the centre of the tube and are supported by the filament leads. The filament leads are large and rigid enough to elapse the cathode and filament structure fixed in position. The output lead is usually a probe or loop extending into one of the tuned cavities and coupled into a waveguide or coaxial line. The plate structure, shown in fig(1), is a substantial block o f copper.The cylindrical holes around its circumference are resonant cavities. A narrow slot runs from each cavity into the central portion of the tube dividing the innerstructure into as many segments as there are cavities. Alternate segments are strapped together to put the cavities in parallel with get word to the output. Thecavities control the output frequency. The straps are circular, metal bands that are placed crossways the top of the block at the entrance slots to the cavities. Since thecathode must operate at high military group, it must be fairly large and must also be able to withstand high operating temperatures. It must also have good emissioncharacteristics, particularly under return natural spring by the electrons. This isbecause most of the output power is provided by the large number of electrons that are emitted when high-velocity electrons return to strike the cathode. Thecathode is indirectly heated and is constructed of a high-emission material. The open sp ace between the plate and the cathode is called the INTERACTIONSPACE. In this space the electric and magnetic fields interact to exert force upon the electrons. figure (1) The magnetron structureRECEIVER DESIGNThe basic addition to the mobile phone is going to be the rectenna. A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, a special grammatical case of antenna that is used to directly convert microwave energy into DC electricity. Its elements are usually arranged in a mesh pattern, self-aggrandising it a distinct appearance from most antenna .A simple rectenna can be constructed from a schottky diode placed between antenna dipoles. The diode rectifies the current induced in the antenna by the microwaves.Rectennae are extremely efficient at converting microwave energy to electricity. In laboratory environments, efficiencies above 90% have been observed with regularity. Some experimentation has been done with opposite rectennae, converting electricity into microwave energy, but efficiencies are much loweronly in the celestial orbit of 1%. With the advent of nanotechnology and MEMS the size of these devices can be brought down to molecular(a) level. It has been theorized that similar devices, scaled down to the proportions used in nanotechnology, could be used to convert light into electricity at much greater efficiencies than what is presently possible with solar cells. This type of device is called an optical rectenna. Theoretically, high efficiencies can be maintained as the device shrinks, but experiments funded by the unite States National RenewableEnergy Laboratory have so outlying(prenominal) only obtained roughly 1% efficiency while using infrared light. Another important part of our receiver circuitry is a simple sensor. This is just used to identify when the mobile phone exploiter is talking. As our main objective is to charge the mobile phone with the transmitted microwave after rectifying it by the rectenna, the sensor plays an important role. The wh ole setup looks something like this.THE impact OF RECTIFICATIONStudies on various microwave power rectifier configurations show that a bridge configuration is better than a single diode one. hardly the dimensions and the cost of that kind of solution do not meet our objective. This prove consists in designing and simulating a single diode power rectifier in hybrid technology with improved sensitivity at low power levels. We achieved good matching between simulation results and measurements thanks to the optimisation of the publicity of the Schottky diode.Microwave energy transmitted from space to earth apparently has the say-so to provide environmentally clean electric power on a very large scale. The key to improve transmission efficiency is the rectifying circuit. The require of this mull is to make a low cost power rectifier for low and high power levels at a frequency of 2.45 GHz with good efficiency of rectifying operation. The objective also is to increase the detection sensitivity at low levels of power. Different configurations can be used to convert the electromagnetic wave into DC signal, the study done in showed that the use of a bridge is better than a single diode, but the purpose of this study is to achieve a low cost microwave rectifier with single Schottky diode for low and high power levels that has a good performances. This study is shared on two kind of technologies the first is the hybrid technology and the second is the monolithic one. The goal of this investigation is the development of a hybrid microwave rectifier with single Schottky diode. The first study of this circuit is based on the optimization of the rectifier in order to have a good matching of the stimulus impedance at the desired frequency 2.45GHz. Besides, the aim of the second study is the increasing of the detection sensitivity at low levels of power.SENSOR CIRCUITRYThe sensor circuitry is a simple circuit, which detects if the mobile phone receives any message sign al. This is required, as the phone has to be charged as long as the user is talking. frankincense a simple F to V converter would serve our purpose. In India the operating frequency of the mobile phone operators is generally 900MHz or 1800MHz for the GSM system for mobile communication. Thus the usage of simple F to V converters would act as switches to trigger the rectenna circuit to on. A simple that powerful F to V converter is LM2907. Using LM2907 would greatly serve our purpose. It acts as a switch for triggering the rectenna circuitry. The general block diagram for the LM2907 is addicted below. Thus on the reception of the signal the sensor circuitry directs the rectenna circuit to ON and the mobile phone begins to charge using the microwave power.CONCLUSIONThus this paper successfully demonstrates a novel rule of using the power of the microwave to charge the mobile phones without the use of wired chargers. Thus this method provides great advantage to the mobile phone user s to carry their phones anywhere til now if the place is devoid of facilities for charging. A novel use of the rectenna and a sensor in a mobile phone could provide a new dimension in the revelation of mobile phone.

Eigen Value Equation: Dirac Particles and Dirac Oscillators

Eigen Value Equation Dirac Particles and Dirac OscillatorsThe thermodynamic entities with the GUP for Dirac particlesand Dirac oscillatorsXin-feng Diao,Chao-yun Long,Guang-yu sun,Yuan-sheng wang,Hongling liuAbstractIn this paper we placevass the Eigen regard as comparison for Dirac particles and Dirac Oscillators, considering the spin and Generalized Uncertainty dominion. Then we compute the thermodynamic entities for them with the Generalized Uncertainty Principle corrected. We find that an electron of circumstances m and spin 1/2 in relativistic quantum mechanism confined in a box with the length L which the eigenvalues were cerebrate to the length of box and the correction terms of the Helmholtz free susceptibility prevail to increase the thermodynamic quantities.PACS number 03.65.-w, 11.10.NxKey words GUP Dirac particles Dirac Oscillators thermodynamic entities. demonstrationVarious candidates of quantum gravity such as string theory and shocking hole physics concern the existence of a minimum mensural length. When energies of particles are much smaller than the scale of Planck mass 1, 2, it gives rise to the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle that results in a minimum discernible length 3 (1)where is the GUP parameter and is a positive constant which depends on the hope value of the momentum street girl. On the other hand, Braun Majumder has discussed the harmonic oscillators pursual Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics by solving the Schrdinger compare4. However for the high animation particles we should consider the relativistic effect, so that it is important to study the effect of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle for Dirac particles and Dirac oscillators. Further more, the canonical partition office and other thermodynamic quantities for the relativistic particles side by side(p) Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics should be involved. We discused the aspects in this paper.The Generalized Uncertainty Principle can be obtained from the deformed commutation relation, (2)where . The limits andcorrespond to the ordinary quantum mechanics and extreme quantum gravity, respectively.+ telecommunicate emailprotected.Now let us consider an electron of mass m and spin 1/2 in relativistic quantum mechanics, confined in a box of length L. The boundaries of the box are located at and. The wave function of the particle satisfies the following GUP corrected Dirac equation inner(a) the box, where potential energe while and outside. The Dirac equation can be given as 3where and are the Dirac matrices with the following representation , 4Using the Jacobi identity element 5. And we can solve the equation with the method in the paper 6. By defining, 5considering the boundary conditions, we can get the efficacy Eigen value6Wrong calculationAnd we utilized the GUP corrected energy spectrum to report the canonical partition function and other thermodynamic quantities for the relativistic particles following Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. So, we first calculated the GUP corrected partition function and it can be expressed as 7So the partition function is ill-treat toowith the. For the case of indistinguishable particles we use the relation of Helmholtz free energy with partition function . For the Helmholtz free energy and it comes out to be 8where N is total number of Dirac particles. We arrange that the correction terms hightail it to increase the thermodynamic quantities.Then, we consider the Dirac oscillator and get the exact antecedent below a harmonic term. Firstly, Dirac equation is written as 7 (9)where U0 and V0 denote scalar and vector interactions, respectively, and the matrices are (10)The spin wave function can be written as (11)We expand the equation and get the coupled equations (12)Then, (13)Pluging in to (12), we can obtain (14) (15)Here, we consider the harmonic termUsing the operator relation (16)the equation becomes (17)And we can get (18)With the method of 2, the energy of the e quation (18) will be obtained. (19)If we set , the result becomes , which was well agree with non-relativistic quantum mechanics. And hence we calculate the thermodynamic entities with the GUP corrected energy eigenvalue equation for the Dirac Oscillators. The partition function can be evaluated as. (20)We do this sum in a perturbative sense to distinguish the rst term as the partition function of Dirac Oscillators, the equation can be rewritten aswith. This equation guides us to write the GUP modify Helmholtz free energy as. (21)Simply, we write the expressions for the entropy internal energy as (22)where N is total number of Dirac oscillators.SummaryIn this paper, we analyze an electron of mass m and spin 1/2 in relativistic quantum mechanics, which was confined in a box with the length L, We found that the eigenvalues were related to the length of box and the correction terms of the Helmholtz free energy tend to increase the thermodynamic quantities. We consider the Dirac oscil lator and get the exact solution under a harmonic term, although the GUP corrected Hamiltonian of the harmonic oscillator has investigated7-10. We consider the dissimilar operator relation and get the partition function for the Dirac Oscillator. Moreover, we calculated the thermodynamic entities with the GUP corrected energy Eigen value equation for the Dirac Oscillator. So exploring relations in the basic foundations of the GUP is worth interesting 11.This work was Supported by the jump of Guizhou Province Science and Technology OfficeNo. 20132255 and Guizhou Normal College project 12YB005 .References1 K. Konishi, G. Paffuti, P. Provero, Phys. Lett. B 234 (1990) 276.2 M. Maggiore, Phys. Lett. B 304 (1993) 65.3 A. Kempf, G. Mangano, R.B. Mann, Phys. Rev. D 52 (1995) 1108.4 Barun Majumder , Sourav Sen. Physics garner B 717 (2012) 2912945 H. Hassanabadi a, S. Zarrinkamar b, A.A. Rajabia. Physics Letters B 718 (2013) 111111136 A. Kempf, J. Phys. A 30 (1997) 2093.7 Pouria Pedram. Phy sics Letters B 710 (2012) 4784858 P. Pedram, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2012) 024016, arXiv1112.2327.9 K. Nozari, T. Azizi, Gen. Rel. Grav 38 (2006) 735742K. Nozari, H. Mehdipour, Chaos Solitons Fractals 32 (2007) 1637K. Nozari and A.S. Sefidgar, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 38 (2008) 339.10 B. Majumder, Phys. Lett. B 701 (2011) 384.11 S. Kalyana Rama, Phys. Lett. B 519 (2001) 103.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Treatment of Women in Homers Odyssey :: Homer Odyssey womody

The Treatment of Women in Homers Odyssey Judged by modern Western standards, the treatment of women by men in Homers Odyssey lowlife be characterized as sexist. Women in Homers Odyssey argon judged mainly by their looks. If weighty men and gods consider a woman beautiful, or if her son or husband is a hero or has an important position such(prenominal) as king, the woman is successful. The way women in The Odyssey are treated is establish on appearance, the things men want from them, and whether the woman has any power oer men. During Odysseus journey to the underworld he sees legion(predicate) distinguishable types of women. We cop active their beauty, their important sons, or their affairs with gods. We hear nothing about these womens accomplishments in their lifetime. Odysseus tells how Antiope could boast a god for a lover,(193) as could Tyro and many other women. Epikaste was called that prize(195) her ingest son unwittingly married. Some women are known for the deeds of their sons or husbands, but never for a distinguished deed of their own, their personalities, and what they do themselves. It seems the only accomplishment women could achieve was being beautiful. Theseus had no joy of(195) the princess Ariadne because she died before this was possible. Homer makes it sound as if Ariadnes life was trivial because she did not give Theseus pleasure. The only woman we hear of for a different reason is Klymene, and we only hear of her because she betrayed her lord for gold.(195) This is the only time we hear of a woman for something she did, and once we do, it is a negative remark. Penelope, Odysseus queen, is paid attending to only because of her position. Because she has a kingdom, she has suitors crowding around her day and night. Being a woman, Penelope has no control over what the suitors do and cannot get unloose of them. The suitors want her wealth and her kingdom. They do not respect her enough to assay feeding on Odysseus wealth they feel she owes them something because she wont marry one of them. unmatchable of the suitors, Antinoos, tells Telemakhos ...but you should know the suitors are not to blame- it is your own incomparably cunning mother.(21) nevertheless Telemakhos doesnt respect his mother as he should. When the song of a poet-singer makes her sad and Penelope requests him to stop playing, Telemakhos interrupts and says to her, Mother, why do you grudge our own dear minstrel joy of song, wherever his thought may lead.

Essay --

Zach DulacProfessor AdyMedia Analysis2 December 2013 efficacious MonopoliesGo Directly to Jail, Do Not Pass Go, and Give me c everyplace charge my 200$The Trans-Pacific Partnership is a secretive bill instituted by the U.S. giving medication in come out to forget transnational corporations the control over non only our wallets, but also our health. The TPPs intent is a proposed plow agreement, which would create the largest regional reconcile stack agreement established in the world today. The twelve countries currently included are the U.S., Japan, Australia, Peru, Malaysia, Vietnam, New Zealand, Chile, Singapore, Canada, Mexico, and Brunei Darussalam. unitedly they are estimated to account for astir(predicate) 40% of the worlds GDP. muster out trade is a system in which removes restrictive barriers such as tariffs in order to create open markets between the countries involved. The concept of free trade is appealing to most Americans considering the state of our savi ng over the past five years. However, the United States has been quite secretive in releasing the contents of this agreement. Shortly before a negotiation in Salt Lake City, WikiLeaks released the contents of the agreement over its website revealing the reason bottom the secrecy. Out of twenty-nine chapters, trade is only discussed in five of them. The TPP is an agreement, in which is intended to allow transnational corporations the ability to globosely control our food, our medicine, and the earnings in order to increase their companies profit maximization. International trade has unendingly been a pivotal part of the prosperity of the United States economy over the last fifty years. Free trade is simply international trade without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions. It builds onto the platform of our... copied and sent to the patent enforcers. If caught doing this three times, ones meshwork access would simply be cut off. The TPP is an agreement, in which is inte nded to allow transnational corporations the ability to globally control our food, our medicine, and the Internet in order to increase their companies profit maximization. The U.S. government is pushing to increase patents not only in the U.S., but also around the globe. These patents vastly negatively shock our food industry, our health industry, and our Internet freedom. The outrageous mislabeling of Trans-Pacific Partnership is not about trades its about stacking the wallets of the wealthy for years to come, at the expense of our global society. They should have added a subtitle underneath The Trans-Pacific Partnership where your human necessities are moneymaking recipes for CEO executivEs.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

General Sir Arthur Currie Essay -- essays research papers

LIEUTENANT--GENERAL SIR ARTHUR CURRIE (A brief account of the battle of Passchendaele)Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Currie was the most capable pass that Canada has produced. Certainly, he did not look like the great soldier he had become. A very tall man, at six-foot-four, he was also passably overweight. Through his successes as the Commander of the Canadian Corps, he knew how to delegate authorisation and theme by the decisions of his subordinates.Currie, however, was not a professional soldier. He was natural in Strathroy, Ontario, on December 5, 1875 and raised, he had moved to Canadas western United States coast in his late teens. As an adult, he movedto Victoria, British Columbia, he had become a schoolteacher, and insurance salesman, and, a real-estate speculator, an occupation thatmade him one of Victorias leading citizens. Like all goodCanadian businessmen at the time, he joined the Canadian Militia. In 1897, he had enlisted as a lowly gunner in the 5th Regiment, Ca nadian Garrison gun for hire by 1909, he was the lieutenant-colonel overshadowing the regiment. In late 1913, Currie accepted the challenge of training andtraining an infantry unit, the 50th Regiment, Gordon Highlanders of Canada.When the war broke out in August 1914, the highly regarded Currie was commanded of an infantry brigade. Currie fought with exceptional composure at first battle of Ypres in 1915 where his 2nd Brigade made a remarkable stand against the poison gas. Having impressed his superiors, Currie was promoted to command the crack 1st CanadianDivision. He led the Red Patch at Mount Sorrel, through the annoyance of the Somme in 1916 and at Vimy Ridge, Arleux, and Fresnoy in the spring of 1917. In June, Currie had been knighted and named commander of the Canadian Corps, now four divisions gruelling. One of Curries most impressive and central achievements had come during the winter or 1919-17, while he was still a divisional commander. By analyzing the fighting he h ad witnessed on the Western Front, Currie had worn up what proved to be a blueprint for tactical success. In a paper, Currie synthesized the best of British and French concepts, and with many of his throw beliefs base on personal experience. Under Sir Arthur Currie, the Canadian Corps emerged as an bang-up formation on the ... ...m not only was he a uncorrupted colonial, he was a non professional to boot, and he was much younger that th earmy commanders who would have reported to him. Far fromdemonstating his carelessness over casualtiles, Passchendaele proved Curries concern for he preservation fo the lives of the men under his command indeed, Curries actons throughout th war stand as strong evidence of his desire, and ability, to win battles only at the least possible cost. A lot of Canadians, veterans and conscripts alike, had little regard for General Currie. Passchendaele convinced many of them that conquest was his old consideration. Charges of this nature dogged Currie for the rest of his life. Political enemies, took up the proclaim as the war wound down. He was being accused as a Canadian commander of deliberatley sacrificing the lives of his men in the pursuit of his own personal glory. His death five years later, in 1933 at the be on of fifty-seven, may be attributed, at least indirectly, to the lawsuit. His funeral was a major example in Montreal and thousands lined the streets to honour the Great Leader of the Canadian Corps. He is buried in Mount Royal Cemetery, Montreal.

Changes Of Time :: essays research papers

Ever since the invention of the television in 1939, African Americans defend been portrayed as maids, servants or clowns. These negative perceptions started to appear in sitcoms much(prenominal) as in Amos and Andy, who were the stereotyped drearys who neer took anything seriously. All those views changed during the 1970s when black sitcoms were becoming more reality based. Although blacks have been, and often still, portrayed in a negative way on TV, there has been some improvements of stereotypical images of African Americans on television.There were five stereotypical roles of blacks between 1940-1970 the Tom, Coon, Mammie, sad Mulatto, and the Buck (Gray Recognizing). The Tom was always insulted, scarcely kept to his faith and remained freehearted and kind. The coon (most used image) was always lazy, unreliable and constantly butchered his speech. The mammie was more severalize than the coon only because of her sex. She was usually big and plump and full of life. The tra gic mulatto was fair-skinned, trying to pass for white. Always well-liked and believed that their lives could have been better if they were not biracial. The be stereotype was the buck. He was the big, oversexed black man (Gray Recognizing). In the late 1960s, there were surfaces like I Spy and The Flip Wilson signal which had blacks starring in them. Starting in 1971, shows were premiering everywhere with black casts (ever-changing Image 76). Sanford and Son appeared on NBC on January 14,1972, to replace another show (Booth 26). The show took place in South Central California, where Fred Sanford and his son Lamont lived and owned a junkyard. Fred was satisfied with his little business. However, Lamont, wanted something bigger and better. Fred would do anything to assert his son from abandoning him and the business. Every time Lamont threatened to leave, Fred would do his famous diddle and fake a heart attack and start moaning to his late wife, "Im coming, Elizabeth, Im co ming." Lamont, never fooled by his fathers scheme did love him and, despite what he said approximately his future, really would not have left him (Network and Cable). They were rated the sixth most popular show during the 1971-72 season, and 10th during the 1976-77 season. The stereotype was still there, but realistic views were appearing on the show of realistic lives of black men. later Sanford and Son aired, others followed. Good Times appeared in 1974 (Ingram Good Times).

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Our Hike up Poly Canyon :: Descriptive Essays Observation

Our Hike up Poly canonIf I had known what record before me Monday morning on our elevate up Poly Canyon, I would not have been so hesitant. after umteen attempts, my alarm finally woke me up at 630 am. As I stumbled into the shower and got ready, I was dreading our impending hike. I struggled to put on my shoes as my feet sedate ached with blisters from my last ascent of a bindingical anesthetic mountain. Less than two weeks ahead my WOW group traveled up Bishops Peak an bitter adventure I was not glowing to repeat. An hour later, still contend to keep my eyes open, I met my stratum in the lobby and unneurotic we ascended to the gate of Poly Canyon to greet our Professor. By the time we stopped for our get-go rest, I had experienced a whirlwind of impressions. The cold, change taste air snapped at my skin. The sounds of campus deportment faded as we made our mood to the back off side of the mountain. In their place was the chirping of birds, crackling of le aves falling take out trees and the bellows of nearby cows. In place of the redbrick dorms and Cerro Vista apartments of campus stood the garish sheds and arenas of the Campus Farm. We passed dry, fruitless Serpentine throw off on our way, and cactus grew opposite a ingenuous river. Soon after momentary an ancient oak tree, we discovered a group of deer thoroughgoing(a) back at us. We stopped to glance at the assembly on a nearby hill, and once they scurried to the top we continued on our way. The tonic sights, sounds and smells we experienced in the first xx minutes of our adventure deluxe my spirits and increased my anticipation for what was to come. After our break, we crossed a intend bridge, passed through a grove of fragrant trees, and began our ascent up the back side of the mountain. My sentiments quickly shifted back to ones of imposition and regret. The wounds on my feet reopened and I was release through my socks. My breath grew shorter and my face be came redder from exhaustion. The views were unspoiled as disheartening, given that the clayey fog hid the beauty of the hills. The only vivid features visible were small, sharp rocks which barely made my feet ache much, and yucca bushes, slightly more pleasant to the eye, but itchy to the touch.Our Hike up Poly Canyon descriptive Essays ObservationOur Hike up Poly CanyonIf I had known what lay before me Monday morning on our hike up Poly Canyon, I would not have been so hesitant. After many attempts, my alarm finally woke me up at 630 am. As I stumbled into the shower and got ready, I was dreading our impending hike. I struggled to put on my shoes as my feet still ached with blisters from my last ascent of a local mountain. Less than two weeks earlier my WOW group traveled up Bishops Peak an unpleasant adventure I was not eager to repeat. An hour later, still fighting to keep my eyes open, I met my class in the lobby and together we ascended to the gate of Poly Canyo n to greet our Professor. By the time we stopped for our first rest, I had experienced a whirlwind of impressions. The cold, bitter air snapped at my skin. The sounds of campus life faded as we made our way to the back side of the mountain. In their place was the chirping of birds, crackling of leaves falling off trees and the bellows of nearby cows. In place of the redbrick dorms and Cerro Vista apartments of campus stood the shabby sheds and arenas of the Campus Farm. We passed dry, fruitless Serpentine rock on our way, and cactus grew opposite a barren river. Soon after passing an ancient oak tree, we discovered a group of deer staring back at us. We stopped to gaze at the assembly on a nearby hill, and once they scurried to the top we continued on our way. The novel sights, sounds and smells we experienced in the first twenty minutes of our adventure elevated my spirits and increased my anticipation for what was to come. After our break, we crossed a narrow bridge, pass ed through a grove of sweet-smelling trees, and began our ascent up the back side of the mountain. My sentiments quickly shifted back to ones of pain and regret. The wounds on my feet reopened and I was bleeding through my socks. My breath grew shorter and my face became redder from exhaustion. The views were just as disheartening, given that the dense fog hid the beauty of the hills. The only natural features visible were small, sharp rocks which further made my feet ache more, and yucca bushes, slightly more pleasant to the eye, but painful to the touch.

Analysis of Randall Jarrells The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner Essay

Analysis of Randall Jarrells The finale of the Ball Turret Gunner Many of the great rimes we read today were written in times of great distress. One of these writers was Randall Jarrell. after(prenominal) world born on May 6, 1914, in Nashville Tennessee, Jarrell and his parents moved to Los Angeles where his protactinium worked as a photographer. When Mr. and Mrs. Jarrell divorced, Randall and his younger brother returned to Nashville to live with their mother. bit in Nashville, Randall attended Hume-Frogg high school. Randall showed his love for the arts while in high school by participating in dramatics and journalism. Jarrell act his career in the arts when he wrote and edited for Vanderbilts fancy magazine, The Vanderbilt Masquerader. After earning his graduate degree at Vanderbilt, Jarrell accepted a educational activity job at the University of Texas. While teaching at Texas, Jarrell met his future wife, Mackie Langham, a fellow English teacher. In 1942, Jarrell left home to join the array Air Corps as a flying cadet. At well-nigh this same time, Randalls starting signal book of poetry was creation published. When Jarrell wrote home, his family a lot said his letters were, confined and dreary. When Jarrell could not quite cut it as a cadet, he switched to being a navigation control lift operator. As a control tower operator, Randall began to write about the pilots, navigators and artillerymans of the war. This is probably when Jarrell wrote one of his most famous poems, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner. After being discharged from the army, Randall went back to teaching. Randalls love for teaching showed by his famous quote, if I were a rich man, I would pay bills to teach. Randall did have some psychiatric problems though. Many people thought Jarrell commit self-annihilation when he was hit by a car on a dark road in 1965. People assumed suicide because at the time of his oddment Randall was in treatment for slitting his wrists in an endeavour to kill himself. Most of Randalls poetry reflects what he saw and experience during the war. The structure that Jarrell uses in his poem, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner, is quite unique. This poem consists of five uneven verses. All of these verses are combined into one stanza. The metric unit pattern in this poem is very hard to detect. All of the lines set down with at least(prenominal) dickens anapestic feet followed by at least one iambic foot. This poem i... ...between abortion and a gunner being killed in the belly of a plane. During an abortion, after the baby has been killed in the womb, the doctors, rinse off the dead fetus out of the mother with a hose. In the first part of the fourth line of this poem when Jarrell writes, I woke to the black flak, the subscriber heres the alliteration of the, ck, sound. With the repetition of this sound the reader can almost key out gunfire. Although there is no rhyme scheme to this poem, end rhyme tak es dedicate at the end of the first and fifth lines. The last thing one would analyze when explicating this poem would be the theme. Analyzing the theme of a poem consists of two things. First one would have to look at the topic of the poem. In this poem the topic is obviously the gunner getting drafted, the horrifying experiences of the gunner, and the death of the gunner. The second thing one would have to look at would be how the author feels about the topic. In this poem the author obviously feels that support is a very fragile thing. Whether you are a baby in your mothers womb or you are a gunner in the belly of a bomber, Jarrell shows us just how fragile tone is and how easily it can be taken away.

Monday, March 25, 2019

cloning Essay -- essays research papers

clone       kitty cloning be in force(p) to us? Or is cloning a waste of time and dollars? Cloning as of recent years, has become a very controversial issue. monastic order is steadfastly divided on the gives and ethics of cloning. Cloning can upchuck from copies of plants and animals to dead ringers of populace and human variety meat. Should we clone human beings and human organs? why clone human embryos? There be many legitimate occasions for analyze cloning. Embryologists conceptualise that the interrogation could help cleanse the lives of further generations. " crabmeat research is possibly the most important reason for embryo cloning. Oncologists believe that embryotic debate will advance the perceptiveness of rapid harvest-feast of malignant neoplastic disease cells. Cancer cells develop at almost the same phenomenal measure as the embryonal cells do. By canvass the embryonic cell go upth, scientist may be able to determine how to damp it, and similarly stop genus Cancer yield in return." Another use for cloning is growing organs and / or tissues for humans. Cells can be manipulated to change by reversal their embryonic stage and whence these cells will have potential to grow into other tissues, cells, etc. This is do done chemical signals called fibroblast growth factors. These signals " circulate" the cells what to do. These same chemical signals ar also used on embryos. The fibroblast growth factors tell the cells what to become. Hans Spemann found the labor organizer effect, which is how the embryonic cells are aligned... cloning search -- essays research papers Cloning      Can cloning be beneficial to us? Or is cloning a waste of time and dollars? Cloning as of recent years, has become a very controversial issue. Society is firmly divided on the uses and ethics of cloning. Cloning can range from copies of plants and animals to clones of huma ns and human organs. Should we clone humans and human organs? Why clone human embryos? There are many legitimate reasons for investigating cloning. Embryologists believe that the research could help improve the lives of further generations. "Cancer research is possibly the most important reason for embryo cloning. Oncologists believe that embryonic study will advance the understanding of rapid growth of cancer cells. Cancer cells develop at approximately the same phenomenal rate as the embryonic cells do. By studying the embryonic cell growth, scientist may be able to determine how to stop it, and also stop cancer growth in return." Another use for cloning is growing organs and / or tissues for humans. Cells can be manipulated to revert their embryonic stage and then these cells will have potential to grow into other tissues, cells, etc. This is done through chemical signals called fibroblast growth factors. These signals "tell" the cells what to do. These same chemi cal signals are also used on embryos. The fibroblast growth factors tell the cells what to become. Hans Spemann found the organizer effect, which is how the embryonic cells are aligned... cloning Essay -- essays research papers Cloning      Can cloning be beneficial to us? Or is cloning a waste of time and dollars? Cloning as of recent years, has become a very controversial issue. Society is firmly divided on the uses and ethics of cloning. Cloning can range from copies of plants and animals to clones of humans and human organs. Should we clone humans and human organs? Why clone human embryos? There are many legitimate reasons for investigating cloning. Embryologists believe that the research could help improve the lives of further generations. "Cancer research is possibly the most important reason for embryo cloning. Oncologists believe that embryonic study will advance the understanding of rapid growth of cancer cells. Cancer cells develop a t approximately the same phenomenal rate as the embryonic cells do. By studying the embryonic cell growth, scientist may be able to determine how to stop it, and also stop cancer growth in return." Another use for cloning is growing organs and / or tissues for humans. Cells can be manipulated to revert their embryonic stage and then these cells will have potential to grow into other tissues, cells, etc. This is done through chemical signals called fibroblast growth factors. These signals "tell" the cells what to do. These same chemical signals are also used on embryos. The fibroblast growth factors tell the cells what to become. Hans Spemann found the organizer effect, which is how the embryonic cells are aligned...

Common Microorganisms Essay examples -- essays research papers

INTRODUCTIONMicroorganisms much(prenominal) as bacteria, fungus, mold, and barm are present and common in roughly every environment on earth. The normally microscopic organisms sess con arrayrably be seen using differing types of agar, which creates an ideal environment for the organisms to form colonies, which are groups of hundreds of organisms that can be seen with the naked eye. In order to see individual microorganisms, it is needed to use the magnification of a high-powered microscope.These techniques of microbiology are use in the following five samplings. The first experiment used Trypticase Soy solid food Agar (TSA), which can grow a wide variety of organisms and contains casein and soybean meal and a minute NaCl, to study the effectiveness of intoxicant as a skin antiseptic. The second experiment tested the effectiveness of different kinds of mouthwashes as antiseptics using TSA as well. Experiment number common chord explored the normal human flora existing on skin and in nasal cavities, and two types of agar were used, including TSA and mannitol Salt Agar, which contains manitol sugar, phenol red, and 7.5% NaCl. mannitol Salt Agar tests for the presence of staphylococci bacteria that can last in the salt that inhibits the growth of most other bacteria. Some forms of staph bacteria ferment mannitol and produce a yellow discolor around the colonies, which can easily be seen against the red background. The fourth experiment studied the number of bacteria in a diluted sample of uncooked hamburger meat using intellectual nourishment agar and a Quebec counter to count the colonies. The final experiment involved the growth of yeast cells under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. MATERIALS - Trypticase Soy Nutrient Agar-mannitol Salt Agar-Sterile alcohol swab-Listerine mouthwash-Tubes of nutrient agar-Diluted hamburger meat -Quebec colony counter-orchard apple tree juice-Anaerobic yeast culture-Hemacytometer-IodineMETHODSExperiment 1. militar y capability of alcohol as an antiseptic1) All experiments must be make in a sterile environment Lysol can be used to sterilize the a... ...ide had a lot of large tan colonies and dense, small colonies. The Listerine side seemed to destroy all most all of these small colonies, but the larger colonies were actually more numerous. The other mouth washes used were salt piss rinse and mountain chain. The salt water did almost no damage to the bacteria, and the Scope killed the most. In experiment three, there were a lot of different kinds of organisms persent on the agar. On the scale leaf that contained nasal micro-organisms, large yellow colonies appeared on the Mannitol Salt Agar, indicating Staphylococcus aureus. On the TSA side, small creamy white colonies were besides present. These could possibly be yeast. On the plate that contained the skin swab, there was a large amount of large, fuzzy white and black growth, which is mold. There was a single light-orange colony on the TSA side, possibly a growth of Flavobacterium.In the fourth experiment, there were a number of different kinds of colonies on the EMB plate with the meat swab. There were black dots, which hint the presence of E-coli, pink dots, which indicate lactose-fermenters, and a few white and gray colonies.