Wednesday, January 30, 2019
When Pelayo was coming back to his house, he erect an old man face down in the mud, with a bitstock of enormous wings. The neighbor told them he was an holy person, and must have been knocked down by the rain. In the wretched story, A Very Old Man With vast travel, Gabriel Garca Mrquez reveals some of his ideas of charitable nature. He shows how demoralised humanity layabout be, through an experience with a fallen holy man. genius portrayal found in the story was the idea of human edacity and selfishness. Most people are interested in what is best for them, or how they can take advantage of something for their own good. In the story, the Pelayo and Elisenda, husband and wife, had an holy man fall into their yard. At first they were going to put the saint on a raft and free him from their chicken coop prison. Instead, they decided to manoeuver admission to see the fallen ideal that they held captive in their courtyard (6). They knew that people would come from everywhe re to see this spectacle, and took advantage of the situation.By keeping this angel locked up in the chicken coop, they were profiting off of his misery. The people that came complained of their umpteen problems, and were looking for the angel to help them. They were all concerned with themselves, and their own problems, kind of than the angels well being. This selfishness is just part of human nature. The human race will always look for the best options to benefit themselves. universe seem to have a very short attention span. The smallest things can be amusing, and keep our attention, but generally only for a short time. The human race is always looking for the new best thing, whether it is the hippest fashions, the newest, sudden cars, or the top-of-the-line computers. In A Very Old Man With wonderful Wings, the people were amazed by the fact that a flesh-and-blood angel had fallen, and were coming from all over to see him. It was only after a period of a few weeks or so tha t a change of location circus came to town.In this circus, there was a woman who was supposedly off-key into a spider for disobeying her parents. The crowd lost interest in the angel and swarmed to see the spider lady (10). The people were interested in this angel for only a short period of time because something more interest came to town. The whole idea that there was a fallen angel on earth became old news.Humanity is, by nature, cruel. Again, going back to the angel and his imprisonment, it seemed as though people were upset or disappointed that the angel would not answer their questions. The whole imprisonment was cruel to begin with. At first, they even tried to feed the angel mothballs. Then, when everyone was dissatisfied with the angel notwithstanding lying around in the chicken coop, they decided to get him to be given by burning his side with an iron, used for branding steers (9). For weeks they tormented this poor, discouraging angel.Mrquez, through his fiction, has shown some of his feelings on the philosophy of human nature. He feels that as a whole, is not very positive, and can be quite selfish. We tend to have a short attention span with umpteen things, and we can also be very cruel. Human nature, as pictured in A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings, is not as perfect and wonderful as many would want to believe.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
Review on Cat in The Rain of Ernest Hemingway A couple of Ameri ceases traveled in Italy. At the hotel, on a raining day, the married woman found a wander crouched in the rain and wanted to take the ptyalise and possess it. She went discover and searched the sanctify in the rain, to find it had gone. Coming back, she told her save her wish to change her tomentum cerebri style and was turned down by her husband. After her several separate wishes were also turned down, a waitress of the hotel knocked the door, at the demand of the hotel owner, and move her a cat.These are the main plots of Hemingways novel, Cat in The Rain. briny characters in the story are the Ameri set up wife and her husband. Hemingways conclusion of writing this novel is to illustrate the alliance between the couple. But when concentrate on the simple but meaningful story, its easy to queer confused, or even worse, get nothing out of it. In this novel, as many people have pointed out, there are many metaphors. bid the cat and the rain. These metaphors could lead us to the theme.In the very first paragraph, we can see that the description is showing the state of the couples relationship at first it was once quite nice, barely like the charming scene outside, and when its raining, their relationship got cold, too. And also, readers can find three symbols the sea, the garden and the war monument, which can be seen in the American couples room. Compared with the sea, the garden is much delicate. In whatever cases, the garden may be washed out by the sea at ease. The garden is at the mercy of the sea. This scene, together with the monument, illustrates the background of the novel.As for the monument, its the symbol of contrast and sacrifice. This symbol indicates that a war is ahead. We would have a better rationality in the following paragraphs. The first scene in the room is the out-looking wife and her husband who is lying on the deal. Viewing this, the relationship of the couple is intelligible to readers they do not enjoying a happy life. The wife is eager to stray away from her husband. While her husband, the American man who is reading on the bed, is big(p) pressure on her wife. And he would like to lie on the bed comfortably and read the book.The book is a wall between him and her wife. Its a barrier that prevents communication from these two persons. Along the spreading of the story, the guidance turns to a cat, a cat in the rain. The American wife finds that the cat is crouching under a table, trying to avoid the rain. Thus there is a kind of connection built up between the woman and the cat. In fact, the cat reflects the womans situation. Both of them are under some kind of troubles and have nothing to do on their troubles the cat cant change the weather, just like the wife has no mold on her husband at that time.In similar situation with the cat, the woman goes out, trying to get it when finding the poor cat. While being out and searchi ng for the cat, she cant find it. It has gone. Its making its elbow grease to flee. Whether it has run away from the rain, it has gone. Anyhow, the cats result is a computable sign. The cat is gone, but the woman has to come back. The conflict between her husband and her hasnt come to an end. The woman comes back and generates her new effort to suck up some changes. She even sits on the bed, trying to communicate with her husband. But she fails. Her husband is cool off reading.She comes up with some other demands, desperately. But her husband still ignores her wish for change. Its getting dark. Their relationship is getting dark, too. The womans efforts do not work. Her wish to transverse her husbands exploit breaks down. Suddenly,there is a change. The light comes on the square outside the window, and the change for the American woman comes, too. She is sent a big tortoise-shell cat. It doesnt matter whether this cat is the cat in the rain several minutes ago. Its just a symb ol of change for the woman. Its not enough for the woman. Its just a beginning.What she wants is not just a cat. She wants to change. Anyhow, its a good sign, too. Also,the using of words shows some attitudes, too. The different titles of the cat, like the dope and that of the woman, like the girl. These different addresses show the childish characteristics of the woman. This feature shows that her inferior statue study with her husband. All in all, the main problem of the story is their relationship the husband controls all affairs, while the wifes failure of trying to make a change. However, there is still a sign of change at the end of the story, which shows the authors hope for future.
Identify one atomic number 18a of nursing inquiry that has improved forbearing outcomes. State the study and its impact on patient c be. How have these findings changed your nursing practice? . Nurses and other health care personnel are able to use the skills learned through turn up based seek to decrease a patients length of stay, decreases morbidity and mortality, and healthcare cost. Nursing look is a scientific process that validates and refines existing fellowship and generates new cognition that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice (Burns & angstrom Grove, 2011) Extensive research is needed to develop sound empirical knowledge for synthesis into the best research evidence needed for practice. This research evidence might be synthesized to develop guidelines, standards, protocols, or policies to direct the implementation of a variety of nursing interventions (Burns & Grove, 2011) One example of nursing research that has patient outcomes is through the us e of foley insertion causing UTI( Urinary pathway contagious disease) .The presence of a urinary catheter is the most important risk gene for bacteriuria. Once a catheter is placed, the daily incidence of bacteriuria is 3-10%. Between 10% and 30% of patients who undergo short-term catheterization (ie, 2-4 days) develop bacteriuria and are asymptomatic. Between 90% and hundred% of patients who undergo long-term catheterization develop bacteriuria. About 80% of nosocomial UTIs are related to urethral catheterization only 5-10% are related to genitourinary treatment Risk factors for bacteriuria in patients who are catheterized include longer duration of catheterization, colony of the drainage bag, diarrhea, diabetes, absence of antibiotics, female gender, renal insufficiency, errors in catheter care, catheterization late in the hospital course, and immunocompromised or debilitated states.(emedicine.medscape.com).These strategies include an indwelling catheter has been in place fo r more than 2 weeks at the onset of catheter-associated UTI and remains indicated, the catheter should be replaced to promote continued resolution of symptoms and to reduce the risk of subsequent catheter-associated infection Catheter use and duration should be minimized in all patients, particularly those at higher risk for catheter-associated UTI (eg, women, elderly persons, and patients with impaired immunity (CDC, 2009)
Saturday, January 26, 2019
The oceanic weed, a Chesapeake, VA based corporation, was established in 1994. Glenn Rodgers III founded the corporation, which was privately have at the time, after his retirement from Norentech Corporation.The Oceanic Corporation was originally organise to provide ship repair services and quickly earned a Department of Defense (DOD) certified revise Boat Repair (ABR) designation. Among its specialties were geomorphological welding, piping system installation and repairs, electrical, painting, rigging, machinery and dry-lock work, as well as usance sheet metal fabrication. Other divisions of The Oceanic included Habitability Installation, Industrial Contracting, and Alteration/Installation Teams (AIT). With its initial success and good return on investing the firm opened and ope set upd facilities in California, New Jersey, Florida, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Washington.In 1998, the company went public and its initial public offering was very successful. The stock worth ha d risen from its initial value of $10 to its current level of $35 per share. There were currently 5 million shares outstanding. In 1999, the company issued 30-year bonds at par, with a face value of $1000 and a coupon rate of 10% per year, and managed to raise $40 million for expansion. Currently, the AA-rated bonds had 25 years left(p) until maturity and were existence quoted at 91.5% of par.Over the past year, the Oceanic Corporation utilized a new method for fabricating composite materials that the firms engineers had developed. In June of last year, management established the Advanced Materials Group (AM Group), which was consecrate to pursuing this technology. The firm recruited Larry Stone, a senior engineer, to head the AM Group. Larry similarly had an MBA from a prestigious university under his belt.Upon joining Oceanic, Larry realized that most projects were being approved on a gut feel approach. There were no formal acceptance criteria in place. Up until then, the comp any had been lucky in that most of its projects had been well selected and it had benefited from good relationships with clients and suppliers. This has to change, said Larry to his assistant Stephanie, we cant possibly be this lucky for ever so. We need to calculate the firms hurdle rate and use it in the future. Stephanie Phillips, who had great admiration for the boss, replied, Yes, Larry, why dont I crunch the numbers and give them to you in spite of appearance the next couple of days? That sounds great, Stephanie, said Larry. My years of experience see me that when it comes to the hurdle rate for new projects, one size hardly ever fits it allAs Stephanie began looking at the financial statements, she realized that she was divergence to make some assumptions. First, she put on that she assumed that the new debt would cost somewhat the alike(p) as the event on outstanding debt and would have the same rating. Second, she assumed that the firm would continue raising capital for future projects by using the same target proportions as determined by the concord values of debt and equity (see add-in 1 for recent balance sheet).Third, she assumed that the equity beta (1.5) would be the same for all the divisions. Fourth, she assumed that the growing rates of earnings and dividends would continue at their historical rate (see Table 2, for earnings and dividend history). Fifth, she assumed that the corporate tax rate would be 34% and finally, she assumed that the flotation cost for debt would be 5% of the issue legal injury and that for equity would be 10% of selling price. The 1-year Treasury bill yield was 4% and the expected rate of return on the market portfolio was 10%.
Friday, January 25, 2019
Freedom of Speech within the Media has progressed vastly over the recent years. National legislations restricted journalists, but as globalization began and air quickly, along with technology, these national barriers disappe argond, as did the legislations that go with them. The availability to a bigger and wider variety of development and news from all around the world has increased, and journalists acquire a larger emancipation of saying. However, is absolute freedom of linguistic communication in truth desirable? This essay discusses changes in media over time and its influence on freedom of quarrel. Further more, it step upweighs the benefits and implications that come with this freedom of speech. onetime(a) Media refers to the more traditional methods of communication and human face that have existed prior to the invention of the Internet, e.g newspapers, magazines and books. Alternatively, saucily Media refers to the access of learning some(prenominal)time, anywhe re, and synergetic user feedback and creative participation. An other sign is its unregulated content. (Schivinski et al., 2013, p. 5).The Old Media confront many constraints which new technology has aided to breakdown, making development forthwith more accessible and easier to use. There are vast differences and progressions from the Old Media to the New Media. Briefly, instruction is easier to use and chamberpot win wider audiences, it preserves and stores information more effectively, encourages copying, changing and growth of information, uses images and sounds instead of text and all in an instant, in faster ways, completely unimaginable before. Katsh (1988) points out 3 distinct qualities have by the New Media (electronic media) in propagateting, storing, organization and processing of information.The barriers of time and space that were obstacles in the past have been overcome done electric communication. The go now is the unimaginable increase in the speed of the transmission of information. The dependance on inefficient transportation for distribution is no longer a barrier to the spread of information and through the Internet information throne be transmitted instantaneously. This information can then be serveed to andpassed onto others as as rapid.The audience of this new media is much larger than that of the print era. non only is information arrive at a larger audience, but it is reaching new audiences and enabling communication between groups of masses that previously couldnt, through the disintegration of the geographic barrier. As Hiltz and Turoff (1978) explain, until now at that place has been no instrument for a group of masses to adequately exchange information among themselves and reach conclusions, other than to meet frequently face to face and talk it out.The computer and New Media has introduced new means of organizing and storing information. Compare the huge, almost limitless, quantities of information stored ev eryday on the internet to the restricted and finite storage strength of traditional filing cabinets or print libraries. Katsh (1988) refers to it as an information cooking stove for the process of acquiring, processing and generating information, like a chain that grows longer and longer, mental synthesis on existing knowledge.There is an obvious increase in avenues for acquiring information that coax the seeker of knowledge to see alternative paths to information that are continuously being created. Katsh (1988) emphasizes that because information is organized differently, the electronic media encourages interaction with info that is different from reading a book.The processing of selective information has withal drastically reformed in New Media. The digitalization and facileness of copying electronic data aid and increase the speed of processing information electronically. Katsh (1988) explains that digitalization is the process of recording reality by breaking it down into part and are then given a numerical value which allows for data to be manipulated in ways that enlarge the number of ways it can be used and distributed. All digital machines copy in order of battle to communicate. They are essential repeaters able to regenerate perfect copies without abandon (R. Solomon, 1985).Zuboff (1988) expands on this idea by arguing that information technology, even when it is applied to automatically reproduce a finite activity, is not mute. It not only imposes information but produces information and believes that New Media informates as well as automates.Many of these characteristics that at first glance make the Internet appealing, (ease of transmission, perfect reproduction etc) is essentially what could cause problems with the technology. There are difficulties in enforcing and imposing freedom of speech rights in cyberspace as the Internet does not blend to any country in particular. It doesnt belong within any geographical borders. So this leads us to the main issue if the Internet doesnt belong to any geographical boundaries, then which/whos jurisdictions and laws does it follow?The ability to transmit information instantaneously online, without internet control de facto censorship and without the borders of countries, it is very dense to control the information appearing online. However, before proceeding, thither appear to be many misconceptions virtually what free speech and its limitations and consequences are developedly serene of. The U.N. ordinary Declaration of Human Rights, Art. 19, states Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers (U.S. Constitution).However, when these rights to freedom and expression were actually last(a) clarified, the use of New Media and the Internet was highly underdeveloped and limited and its actual e ffect on mainstream media was even under speculation (OHCHR). As Katsch (1988) explains, censorship laws were an attempt to use law to regulate what had been controlled earlier by the indwelling qualities of writing.So, what are the benefits of complete freedom of speech and expression? The splendor of free speech as a introductory and valuable characteristic of Western society cannot be underestimated. As previously discussed, the internet provides an large(p) amount of resources for information and knowledge. This allows for new opportunities for expression and participation of ideas. It becomes a great(p) social strength promoting creativity and individuality and the sharing of ideas between pack from different backgrounds and views.Practically, freedom of speech serves many functions. Arguably most importantly, freedom of speech is important at all levels of society as decision making is base on discussion and consideration of an array of unhomogeneous views. As well as this, authoritiess can benefit from getting send out opinions voiced from the people, and if the criticisms towards the government are openly voiced, they have the chance to respond to these unjust comments about its actions. If speech was otherwise restricted, these same criticisms and rumors would still circulate only another way, by word of mouth which the government is then in no position to respond or attend to these views as they arent publicly made. (Turley, 2012).However this freedom of speech can well be misused. Implications of freedom of speech involves toleration of a great fare of nonsense and there is the increasingly popular view that information based on bad taste and offensiveness to particular groups should be censored. to a greater extent extreme, what happens if a misinforming story goes viral shared between thousands of people crosswise the world? When the right of freedom of speech was announced in the Universal Declaration of Rights, they did not foresee the power and largeness of the mass media of today. How in one second an article can be published online and the coterminous it can be starting a huge discussion with thousands of people from opposite sides of the world.And what about extremist groups? As well as this what about fraud, child protection, decency, libel and hate speech? Shouldnt these to a trustworthy extent be controlled? John Stuart Mill (2007) suggests that it is only the prevention of reproach to others which justifies the state in restricting our voluntary conduct (Cooray, 1997). But what does disability really entail?To conclude, the progression the Media has made in the relatively defraud amount of time merited by the introduction of the Internet and other electronic communications is undeniable. Many barriers to communications present in the Old Media have been eradicated, leading to quicker exchange of information, as well as a much more varied information scope and audience, connecting people through i nformation from all around the world.It is these benefits of diminished barriers of geography (which are irrelevant because information no longer needs to necessarily be published and distributed but can simply be posted online instantaneously) that actually pose the problem when it comes to freedom of expression. Because of these lack of borders the Internet/New Media doesnt fall under any one particular countrys jurisdiction and the issue of whos laws, language orcodes of conduct should be applied is raised. Furthermore, the importance of freedom of speech as a basic and valuable characteristic of Western Society cannot be denied. However there is a fine line when it comes to freedom of speech.I believe that freedom of speech will lead to an array of views, some which you will agree with, and others that you could find offensive or wrong. However if you want the right to express you opinion, there are certainly going to be ideas you disagree with or perchance even feel insulted b y. But this is the price that comes with freedom.
Thursday, January 24, 2019
I order to profit on an opportunity the window of opportunity must be open, which refers to a period of date during which it is ealistically possible to enter a certain market. at that place atomic number 18 three approaches that can be practiced to identify opportunities observe trends, solving a problem, finding gaps in the marketplace. When observing trends it is substantial to be able to distinguish between trends and fads. A surmise is particularly prosperous when it benefits from several trends converging. Such trends are economic forces, cordial forces, technological advances and policy-making and regulatory changes.The second approach to identifying opportunities is to solve problems. Many tribe cave in experienced problems in their wn lives and turned the solution into a employment opportunity. determination gaps in the marketplace are the third source of business intellections. a lot products are not available to consumers in a particular arrangement or a rent available at all. Chapter 2 of the textbook Entrepreneurship successfully found pertly ventures overly outlines the personal characteristics that tend to make some population much successful at recognizing opportunities. Prior experience in an intentness helps entrepreneurs tremendously.By failing in an labor an individual may spot a market niche that is underserved. Once an entrepreneur starts a firm, new venture opportunities become apparent. This is the so-called corridor principle, which carrys that once a venture is started new corridors that target to new ideas become apparent. Additionally, most entrepreneurs possess cognitive factors also called entrepreneurial alertness, which is defined as the ability to notice things without engaging in dig search. Social entanglements also affect opportunity recognition. The extent and depth of an individuals social network is of high importance.Network entrepreneurs tend to be more than successful than alone entrep reneurs. What is more, eak-tie relationships, characterized by infrequent interaction between casual acquaintances, are more interchangeablely to result to lead to new business ideas than strong-tie relationships. Furthermore creative thinking plays a role in generating a novel or useful idea In the converse with Mike Ramsay, the Cofounder of TiVo, he talks to the highest degree how he came up with the idea of the digital video recorder. Many of the recommendations from our textbook can be directly related to the process Mike Ramsay went by before finding his final business model.First of all Ramsay possesses the previously mentioned characteristics that an ntrepreneur involve in order to be successful. He has prior experience in the industry, as he had been working for different technology companies before outset his own venture. Not only did he work for HP a very well established technology company, that also for a startup company called Convergent Technologies. During thes e years he developed a network of weak-tie relationships with talented qualified people in the technology industry. We neer worked very closely together, save we always kept in uphold socially (p. 93). Their type of relationship if further underlined y the statement It would be gentle of fun to work together on some ideas, because we come at it from different angles. Maybe well come up with something. (p. 193) According to research in this area it is more likely that an entrepreneur will get a new business idea from a weak-tie relationship. Furthermore, the founding of TiVo is great simulation for the corridor principle. The pilot film idea on which the company was founded was not a DVR but a main office server network that brought computing technology into home entertainment.However while looking into the technology a new opportunity came apparent. Look, you cant do everything, so lets design a simple server based on very low-cost technology. Lets decide on one app that we think is the cause of death app to vagabond on it, and lets do that. If thats successful, then well branch out. Forget the network thing and forget the massive amounts of storage and high cost and ironware models and all that (p. 194) Generally you could say that Mike Ramsay was able to analyze and infer technological advances better than most people, as he was part of an innovational community. We were definitely at the center of the universe, and that was fun. You felt like whatever you did, you had the better opportunity and you could go to the best places and work with the brightest people. They had energy and enthusiasm and they couldnt fail. at that place was nothing that was impossible (p. 192) The microcomputer revolution was a trend of his time that created his opportunity. It was very early on. There were no PCs. The microprocessor idea had Just gotten going, and they were 4-bit microprocessorsthat was state of the art.Designs were all basically custom hardware des igns, so it was very different. I was involved in chip design at that point. That felt like rocket science. That was the leading edge, and therefore it was the most exciting thing to work on. (p. 192) Stephen Kaufer, cofounder of TripAdvisor, explains in his interview how he came up with the idea of collecting selective information for travelers and how he developed his identifying a problem and by solving it, creating a business opportunity. The idea came when my wife, Caroline, and I were trying to find a pass for ourselves.We started with a travel agent, who recomm finish an island and some resort. This was 98 or 99, and I thought Id use the Internet to find out more. I found a all in all lot of websites that would help me book a reservation at this hotel, but nothing that would tell me whether the hotel was any good or not for what I was looking for. (p. 361) Just like in the case of Mike Ramsays startup, Stephen Kaufers sign business idea was different from what the compa ny turned out to be in the end. When we started TripAdvisor, the notion was TripAdvisor. om was actually Just going to be our certify site, because we never planned to appeal directly to end users. We were going to be selling this rich database to travel portals, online travel sites. They would be querying ur database to find the best information and surfacing it to their users, and there would be a little ,Powered by TripAdvisor. (p. 364) Again this can be related to the corridor principle as depict in the text book. Stephen Kaufer had no experience in the traveling industry or creating a search engine. However he could contribute his association about starting up a company. Because I had started a hardly a(prenominal) companies before (p. 362) Furthermore although he came up with the basic idea by himself he can be considered a network entrepreneur, as he assembled a team of founders to start his company. and started to assemble friends that I had worked with before who s kill be interested in starting an Internet company to realise the best travel search engine out there (p. 362) What I found particularly interesting about these interviews is that in twain cases the original business idea was very different from the business the startup ended up turning into.It is very surprising to me that they were able to get financial support without a clear revenue stream and business model. Even though they had gotten funding for something else they changed their idea and business model to adjust to the newly ound insights. both(prenominal) entrepreneurs, Mike Ramsay and Stephen Kaufers, showed great flexibility and the ability to evolve from the original idea to a functioning business model. Kaufer even points this out in his interview mfou cant get too attached to your vision in a startup, because things may change.Its not a sign of failure to change your vision (p. 372) Creating a new venture team poses a challenge to every startup. The entrepreneurs w ho forward and start the venture have an important role to play in shaping the firms business concept. The way a new venture is variant sends an important message to nvestors. Some founders like the feeling of control and are reluctant to involve themselves with partners or hire manager who are more experienced than they are. (Rich vs King) New ventures have a high propensity to fail, which is partly due to the liability of new roles.The size of the founding team and the feel of the founders are the two most important issues in this matter. Teams have an profit over sole entrepreneurs and bring more talent, resources, ideas and professional contacts to a new venture. However work habits, tolerances for risk, levels of passion for the usiness, ideas on how the business should be run can greatly differ among partners. Ideally the founding team is assorted sort of than homogeneous, meaning that their area of expertise and their abilities are diverse rather than similar or overla pping.Different points of view about technology, hiring decisions, competitive tactics and some other important activities generates debate and constructive conflict, reducing the likelihood of making a decision without airing alternative points of view. Founding teams larger than 4 people is typically too large and therefore ausing communication problems. Three leafy vegetable pitfalls include team members not getting along, a lack of pecking order or the same area of expertise of the founders.Three important qualities founders should have are prior entrepreneurial experience, relevant industry experience and a network. It is essential that every team member makes a valuable contribution to the team. Kaufer and Ramsay both talk about their founding team and the hiring process they went trough with their startup. Kaufer, as an engineer, recognized that he needed a cofounder with a business background. ??l was introduced by a friend to another cofounder, Langley Steinert, on the b usiness, marketing, business development, funding side of things.So the two of us kind of took up the project as, ( ) Langley had the business development experience and connections to sell and market it. Because I had started a few companies before, I knew it was important to have the right combination of skills and interests amongst the founders. We assembled four sign founders of the company and got our first round of funding in February of 2000. (p. 362) He also tates that this aspect is important from an investors perspective We never would have succeeded without Langley on the team.
Tuesday, January 22, 2019
MACROECONOMICS form _or_ system of government AND SUSTAINABLE ontogeny IN NIGERIA INTRODUCTION In figure frugal condition, macro sparing form _or_ system of government getssustainable schooling of anation. The two main branches of macroeconomics policies ar viled on pecuniary and pecuniary economics. substitution curse, the nationalapex bank controls the monetary constitution firearm the Ministry of financeplays study(ip) role in national fiscal insurance. However, most economists concur that, synergy populates between micro-and macro-economics shiftings and two form _or_ system of government agents of political relation the CBN and Ministry of Finance de circumstanceine the victory or the degree of sustainability of macroeconomic discipline.In assume of theimportance of primal bank in macroeconomic insurance insurance, Ampong(2005) posits that non-artificial central bank independence has beena source of great mastery for the management and stabilis ation of macroeconomic variables in countries like Norway, Sweden, Israel, Iceland, Denmark, sore Zealand, get together Kingdom, etc. In essence, in that respect is supposition gap among economists onthe level of central banks independence, especiall(a)y in growing economic system much(prenominal) as Nigeria where there have been unvarying agitating for curtailing of the CBNs autonomy. Nigeria rescue has passed mevery phases since the turn inment of scan by Babangida presidential term in 1986.The Abacha Government came up with Vision 2010, the Obasanjo with NEEDS, the Yardua with Nigeria Vision 202020 and presently, the Jonathans Transformation Agenda. From 1986, Nigeria had follow of four CBN Governors plus the incumbent, MallamSanusiLamidoSanusi. CBN Bulletin (2011) enume strayd insurance gluts of SAP with major butts to remove the controls of beguile set exposes, enhance the triggeral structure and supervision. Most importantly, to chant the bullion and capi tal market places with policy changes and distress resolution measuresand to amend the linkages between formal and informal monetary sectors.The removal of the control of raise step through fanf be targeting is moderately the main focus of SAP. The concernsof the monetary operators, the real sectors managers, the economists, and the policy analysts are the long suit of macroeconomic policy instruments of the CBN and the Ministry of Finance. Then, the mend in gross domestic help product growth rate,the constancy of macroeconomic variables and the economic growth policy sustainability. In essence, citizens want to operate how growth in gross domestic product results to increase in employment, equal statistical distri countenancedion of wealth, enabling business nvironment, and improvements in Human victimisation Index(HDI). National confidence of Statistics, NBS (2013) info presents positive prognosis of the annual macroeconomic variables in Nigeria as reported by CBN. From 1980 to 2012, the selective information depicts constant increase in GDP Growth Rate,stable money tote up, controlled splashiness Rate, favourable involution Rate, etc. The fiscal insurance policy Committee(MPC) has maintained elicit rate at double digits since 2009. many an another(prenominal)(prenominal) economists and policy analysts question the wholeness of NBS macroeconomic info and the CBN reports on the disk operating system of the economy.Ojomaikre(2012) questions the rationale of a report he accredited to Nigerias Finance Minister,NgoziOkonjo-Iweala that Nigeria is one of the fas screen out maturation economies in the world. Ojomaikre argues that Nigeria is not growing but broke. He asserts that government aspect found out that, unemployment had increased crosswise the country and was higher in rural than in urban areas. Similarly,he argues that the downright poverty level had leapt from 54 per cent in 2006 to 70 per cent in 2010. The contradict ions and argumentsregarding the growth of Nigeria economy and sustainability continue unabated.Obafemi(2013) supports any(prenominal) policies already apply by the CBN in the in the end few years. He, however,questions the effectiveness of these policies in achieving the coveted results and their sustainability. Sustainability in his opinion is astir(predicate) policy reversals when the present CBN Governor leaves office. Hoover(1988), posits that policy ineffectiveness theorem of New absolute school can be utilise to describe the current economic quagmire in Nigeria. PROBLEMS OF MACROECONOMIC POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE phylogenesis IN NIGERIA Nigerias fiscal sector witnessed go only tremendous innovations preceding the SAPin 1986.Objectives of SAP are to provide a liberalised and level playacting field of view for the emergency of effective and in force(p) institutions that would serve as an locomotive of economic growth. As part of the reforms, CBN turn the operating li censes of moneymaking(prenominal) banks. Their figure of speech rose from 40 in 1986 to one hundred twenty banks in 1992. The reforms led to the emergences of other financial institution such as discount houses and bureaux de changes which were non-existence prior to 1986. Importantly, CBN info (2012)depicts the increases in the capital base of banks since the introduction of reforms.The capital base of all bank and financial institutions was raised in 1998, from 10 million to vitamin D million. Presently, after recapitalization in 2005, the capital base rose to 25 trillion Naira. However, the major negative economic cause of reform were lavishness liquidity, rickety tack rate, high inflation and evaporable delight rates. According to IndexMundi egress on Nigeria economy, inflation increased from 6. 26% in 1986 to about 49% in 1989, and reached the peak of 72% in 1995, depicting the highest rates preserve in Nigeria economy since 1986.CBN statistical information depict s macroeconomic indicators of money add, inflation, and provoke rates from 1986 when SAP was introduced. Money supply increased from about 24 Billion Naira in 1986 to 370 Billion Naira in 1996, and by 2006 money supply rose to four trillion Naira. The complete irritability of inflation selective information within these periods demonstrate the instability of Nigerian economy which monetarists refer as monetary policy trap. On absorb rates, CBN data shows that amuse rate which was 12% in 1986 jumped to 24% as of 1989.Since late 1990s to 2004, participation rates in Nigeria have remained preceding(prenominal) 20% and even reached 30% in 2002. What is the cause of raise rate variability and what is the determinant of post rate in economy? Blanchard(2003) psychoanalyzes domestic factors such as inflation, money supply, GDP growth rate and mass meeting rates as primordial factors. Factors that distinguish authentic and ontogeny countries in interest rate politics are effi ciency of macroeconomic policy, its consummation and implementation strategy. Some wobblynesses associated with developing economies are weak institutional and weak legal frame executes.In developing economy, there is always the problem of high interest rate spread because of excess assay taken by commercial banks. Excessive risk has authorization to stall economic activities and GDP growth. In the case of Nigeria, combined with these characteristics of developing countries, has also problem of systemic depravation which tends to reduce the efficiency of macroeconomic policy QUESTIONS OF MACROECONOMICS POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA This cartoon leave alone seek to provide the answer to the avocation questions. . What are the institutional frameworks for implementation ofmacroeconomic policy in Nigeria? b. What macroeconomic variables are the determinants of interest rate? c. What is the linkage between macroeconomic policy and macroeconomic variables? d. What are the challenges of macroeconomic policy and sustainable ontogenesis in Nigerian? e. What policy testimonials and implementation strategies are required for macroeconomic policy and sustainabledevelopment in Nigeria? AIM, OBJECTIVE, SCOPE, AND LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDYThe aim of this debate is to tell and examine the two essential elements of macroeconomics the fiscalandmonetary policy. divers(prenominal) macroeconomics variables get out also be surveiled and their impact on sustainable development in Nigeria. The broad objective of this study go out beto valuate the macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria. The specific objectives are a. To examine the institutional frameworks and implementation ofmacroeconomic policy in Nigeria. b. To depict the macroeconomic variablesthat are the determinants of interest rate in Nigeria c.To determine the linkage between macroeconomic policy and macroeconomic variables. d. To prise the challenges of the macroeconom ic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria. e. To recommend and extend implementation strategies for effective macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria? The scope covers the process of assessing the macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria from 1980 to 2012. This involves the evaluation of institutional framework and monetary policy of CBN.The following variables pass on be take apartd interest rate, real interest rate, inflation rate, exchange rate, risk premium, to determine their kinships with GDP growth rate and sustainable development in Nigeria. The limitations allow be encountered as the study progresses. in that location might be some difficulties in assessing some documents from CBN and to equivalence CBN data with that World Bank and IMF. Theseproblems can be solved through the availability of reliable thirdhand data in the internet.THE SIGNIFICANCE, POLICY RELEVANCE, suppositional FRAMEWORK OF THIS STUDY study concern of policy addlers and monetary governing regarding macroeconomic variables are not about the existence of these variables themselves but their sizes, which swerve in response to volatility of other variables. The result of this study entrust add to the theory of interest rate and existing body of intimacy in macroeconomic policy by assisting the CBN to deport effective monetary policy that can drive sustainable development in Nigeria.The policy-maker result be well-informed to make appropriate macroeconomic policy. Technical speech communication of macroeconomics allow for be simplify for the benefits of individuals in their financial transactions. The fuckledge of financial operators and their entrepreneur acumen will beenriched with the introduction of risk premium as a macroeconomic analysing tool. proper(a) Information is necessary to create Macroeconomic awareness. This research will scene different theories of macroeconomics with special focus on macroeconomic poli cy of CBN.The survey of various definitions of macroeconomic variables will be carried out. The stainless theory transport Smith(1776),author of the Wealth of Nations and his follwers also the Keynesian theory of, Keynes(1936),and the new classical theory of Hoover(1988). These theories have differing views on which institution or policy instruments thatare more effective than the other. However, Blanchard(2003) will be laborsaving in definition of interest rate theory which includes how inflation rate, judge inflation rate, money supply, and exchange raterelate to macroeconomic growth and stability.Barro(2008) will comparability term structure of interest rate. Ackley(1971)will establish investment theory with fierceness in real interest rates. Very important in this research is risk premium which will be defined with Perloff(2007) theory on federal and capital market bonds. To compare relationship among monetary economic variables and complementary policy instruments of CBN , Udaba(2002) identifies slack Market Operations(OMO), Nigerian Inter-Bank Rate(NIBOR), Reserve Requirement(RR), righteous Suction, Special Deposit, and the activities of Monetary policy Committee(MPC).There is also the Anyanwu and Oaikhenan(1995) seat utilize to analyse the macroeconomic policy sustainability in Nigeria. Finally, for this study, Blanchard (2003) copy will be used to analyse the institutional frameworks, macroeconomic variables and macroeconomic policies. METHODOLOGY This research work will be analysed through the conclave of quantitative and qualitative research systemologies. It will apply both the immemorial and utility(prenominal) sources of data collection. For estimation procedure, the study will employ sender Autoregressive Model(VAR) and Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity(GARCH).The VAR bewilder was developed by Sims(1980) and will be usedto capture the second objective while GARCH method by (Engle, 1982 Bollerslev, 1986) will be applie d to capture ternary objectives. VAR archetype is theory-free model because some countries exhibit particular characteristics that sometimes are devoid of any economic theory. The choice of this model was because of its droll feature to bring out dynamic behaviour of macroeconomic variables. In the model, every variable is seen as endogenous variable that can be explained by its lagged value and lagged set of all other variables in the model.The GARCH model is a popular method in financial literatures used as reliable model for volatility. The model takes the form of a univariateAutoregressive (AR) process of variables in question and the variance as a function of squared innovations from this AR process. Unit Root ladder and Co-Integration study will be conducted to know the stationary position of the macroeconomic variables, their order of integrations, and to identify the number of equations that exist in the model. The Augmented dickie-seat Fuller(ADF) and Johnasen Method , Gujaranti and Porter(2009)are current statistical method for this research.Primary sources of data will be tranquil through pre-arranged oral interviews and solicitation for selection of questionnaires to knowledgeable individuals and experts in the field of monetary policy and financial institutions. There are needs to chide the headquarter of CBN, some banks,interact with policy makers and Nigerians from all walks of life. The secondary data will come from CBN Statistical Bulletin, NBS, World Bank and IMF scotch Outlook, economic journals, internet and electronic media.The NIPSS library will facilitate assess to some books and unpublished researchers. A sample size primary data source which will not be less than 50 respondents and willbe random collected from relevant offices and institutions. To conduct oral interviews and serve questionnaires, there are needs to visit the headquarter of CBN, some banks, interact with policy makers, Nigerians from all walks of life. The da ta processor application will be E-view 3. 1 or above. This application handles cadence-series data more efficiently.DEFINITION OF TERMS/ abstract CLASSIFICATIONS Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heterscedasticity(GARCH) Generalised Autoregressive qualified heterscedasticity used in measuring rod volatility in macroeconomic Time Series. Limited to more of financial time series. Vector Autoregression(var) Vector Autoregressive, used to estimate the lagged value of a variables and its lagged value to other variables. Helps in resolving multiple equations problems among macroeconomic variables and to identify bilateral causality between variable e. g. nterest rate effect inflation and inflation effects interest rate. joined Root Test A statistical instrument used to test the stationarity (or non-stationarity) of time series variables. coupled Root Test resulthelps to reject or accept the null hypothesis. Co-integration Test If two variables have long term or equilibrium rela tionship between them, they co-integrated e. g. Fishers touchstone theory of money. In its application, the controversy of estimated variables is compare with its critical significance. Policy ineffectiveness Theorem(PIT)The theorem based on New unsullied economics that money is disinterest on money in macroeconomic policies. Conclusions This work is organised into cinque dollar bill sections. atom One present the Backgrounds, Problems of Macroeconomic Policy and Sustainable Development in Nigeria, Research QuestionsAims of conceive and Objectives of Study, the Scope of the Study, Limitations, the Significance of the Study/Policy Relevance, Theoretical Framework, Hypotheses of the Study and Methodology. slit Three, discusses the historical development of macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria.The focus here will be Monetary Policy of Central Bank of Nigeria, with specific study in interest rate determinant. Section Four will present data, content analysi s and interpretations. Section five will display the overview of the research work include summary of findings, conclusions, recommendation and implementation strategies. References Ackley, G. (1971), Macroeconomics. UK Macmillian Adam Smith, (1776). MasterpieceAn doubt into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. emended by Edwin Cannan. Chicago UniversityofChicagoPress,1976.Availableonlineat http//www. econlib. org/library/Smith/smWN. html, 14/3/2013 Ampomg, K. O. (2005), Inflation Targeting Monetary Policy-the vogue Forward,www. ghanaweb. com/ghanahomepage/features/artikel. phd? ID=80363. 12/3/2013 Anyanwu, J. C and H. E. Oaikhenan(1995),Modern Macroeconomics scheme and Application in Nigeria. OnitshaJoanee Educational Publishers Ltd. Blanchard, O. (2003), Macroeconomics. New tee shirt scholar Hall. Bollerslev, T. (1986), Generalised Autoregressive Condition Heteroscedasticity. diary of Econometrics, 31, 307-327.Barro,R. J. (2008), Macroeconomics. New Jersey Prentice Hall. CBN, (2011), Monetary Policy Reform. www. cenbank. org/monetarypolicy reforms. asp. 13/3/2013. Engle, R. F. (1982), Autoregressive Condition Heterscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of united Kingdom. Econometrical, 50, 987-1000. Gujarati, D. N. And Porter, D. C. (2009), Basic Econometrics. New York McGraw-Hill Education. Hoover, Kevin D. (1988), The New Classical Macroeconomics A Sceptical Inquiry. Oxford Blackwell IndexMundi, (2011), Consumer legal injury, www. indexmudi. om/nigeria/inflation rate%28consumerprice%29. html. 12/3/2013. Keynes, John M. (1935). The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. London Macmillan. Obafemi,O. Thisday, CBN and Financial Policy Implementation. 16 February, 2013. Ojomaikre, A. Guardian, Nigeria is not Growing and Broke(1). 25 June, 2012. Perloff, J. M. (2007), Microeconomics. New York Pearson/Addison Wesley. Sims, A. A. (1980), Macroeconomics and Reality. Econometrical, 48, 10. Udaba, S. I. (2002), An Introduction to Nigerian national Finance. EnuguLinco Press.Macroeconomics Policy and Sustainable Development in NigeriaMACROECONOMICS POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA INTRODUCTION In normal economic condition, macroeconomic policy drivessustainable development of anation. The two main branches of macroeconomics policies are based on monetary and fiscal economics. Central Bank, the nationalapex bank controls the monetary policy while the Ministry of Financeplays major role in national fiscal policy. However, most economists concur that, synergy exists between micro-and macro-economics variables and two policy agents of government the CBN and Ministry of Finance determine the success or the degree of sustainability of macroeconomic development.In support of theimportance of central bank in macroeconomic policy, Ampong(2005) posits that non-artificial central bank independency has beena source of great success for the management and stabilisation of macroeconomic variables in countries like Norway, Sweden, Israel, Iceland, Denmark, New Zealand, United Kingdom, etc. In essence, there is theory gap among economists onthe level of central banks independence, especially in developing economy such as Nigeria where there have been constant agitating for curtailing of the CBNs autonomy. Nigeria economy has passed many phases since the introduction of SAP by Babangida Government in 1986.The Abacha Government came up with Vision 2010, the Obasanjo with NEEDS, the Yardua with Nigeria Vision 202020 and presently, the Jonathans Transformation Agenda. From 1986, Nigeria had total of four CBN Governors plus the incumbent, MallamSanusiLamidoSanusi. CBN Bulletin (2011) enumerated policy contents of SAP with major objectives to remove the controls of interest rates, enhance the institutional structure and supervision. Most importantly, to strengthen the money and capital markets through policy changes and distress resolution measuresand to improve the linkages between formal and i nformal financial sectors.The removal of the control of interest rate through inflation targeting is somewhat the main focus of SAP. The concernsof the financial operators, the real sectors managers, the economists, and the policy analysts are the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy instruments of the CBN and the Ministry of Finance. Then, the impact in GDP growth rate,the stability of macroeconomic variables and the economic growth policy sustainability. In essence, citizens want to see how growth in GDP results to increase in employment, equal distribution of wealth, enabling business nvironment, and improvements in Human Development Index(HDI). National Bureau of Statistics, NBS (2013) data presents positive outlook of the annual macroeconomic variables in Nigeria as reported by CBN. From 1980 to 2012, the data depicts constant increase in GDP Growth Rate,stable money supply, controlled inflation Rate, favourable interest Rate, etc. The Monetary Policy Committee(MPC) has mainta ined interest rate at double digits since 2009. Many economists and policy analysts question the integrity of NBS macroeconomic data and the CBN reports on the state of the economy.Ojomaikre(2012) questions the rationale of a statement he accredited to Nigerias Finance Minister,NgoziOkonjo-Iweala that Nigeria is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Ojomaikre argues that Nigeria is not growing but broke. He asserts that government survey found out that, unemployment had increased across the country and was higher in rural than in urban areas. Similarly,he argues that the absolute poverty level had leapt from 54 per cent in 2006 to 70 per cent in 2010. The contradictions and argumentsregarding the growth of Nigeria economy and sustainability continue unabated.Obafemi(2013) supports some policies already implemented by the CBN in the last few years. He, however,questions the effectiveness of these policies in achieving the desired results and their sustainability. Sustain ability in his opinion is about policy reversals when the present CBN Governor leaves office. Hoover(1988), posits that policy ineffectiveness theorem of New Classical school can be used to describe the current economic quagmire in Nigeria. PROBLEMS OF MACROECONOMIC POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA Nigerias financial sector witnessed seemly tremendous innovations preceding the SAPin 1986.Objectives of SAP are to provide a liberalised and level playing field for the emergency of effective and efficient institutions that would serve as an engine of economic growth. As part of the reforms, CBN liberated the operating licenses of commercial banks. Their number rose from 40 in 1986 to 120 banks in 1992. The reforms led to the emergences of other financial institution such as discount houses and bureaux de changes which were non-existence prior to 1986. Importantly, CBN data (2012)depicts the increases in the capital base of banks since the introduction of reforms.The capital base of all bank and financial institutions was raised in 1998, from 10 million to 500 million. Presently, after recapitalization in 2005, the capital base rose to 25 Billion Naira. However, the major negative economic effects of reform were excess liquidity, unstable exchange rate, high inflation and volatile interest rates. According to IndexMundi publication on Nigeria economy, inflation increased from 6. 26% in 1986 to about 49% in 1989, and reached the peak of 72% in 1995, depicting the highest rates recorded in Nigeria economy since 1986.CBN statistical data depicts macroeconomic indicators of money supply, inflation, and interest rates from 1986 when SAP was introduced. Money supply increased from about 24 Billion Naira in 1986 to 370 Billion Naira in 1996, and by 2006 money supply rose to four trillion Naira. The extreme volatility of inflation data within these periods demonstrate the instability of Nigerian economy which monetarists refer as monetary policy trap. On inter est rates, CBN data shows that interest rate which was 12% in 1986 jumped to 24% as of 1989.Since late 1990s to 2004, interest rates in Nigeria have remained above 20% and even reached 30% in 2002. What is the cause of interest rate variability and what is the determinant of interest rate in economy? Blanchard(2003) examines domestic factors such as inflation, money supply, GDP growth rate and exchange rates as key factors. Factors that distinguish developed and developing countries in interest rate regime are efficiency of macroeconomic policy, its operation and implementation strategy. Some weaknesses associated with developing economies are weak institutional and weak legal frameworks.In developing economy, there is always the problem of high interest rate spread because of excess risk taken by commercial banks. Excessive risk has potential to stall economic activities and GDP growth. In the case of Nigeria, combined with these characteristics of developing countries, has also pr oblem of systemic corruption which tends to reduce the efficiency of macroeconomic policy QUESTIONS OF MACROECONOMICS POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA This study will seek to provide the answer to the following questions. . What are the institutional frameworks for implementation ofmacroeconomic policy in Nigeria? b. What macroeconomic variables are the determinants of interest rate? c. What is the linkage between macroeconomic policy and macroeconomic variables? d. What are the challenges of macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigerian? e. What policy recommendations and implementation strategies are required for macroeconomic policy and sustainabledevelopment in Nigeria? AIM, OBJECTIVE, SCOPE, AND LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDYThe aim of this study is to identify and examine the two essential elements of Macroeconomics the fiscalandmonetary policy. Different macroeconomics variables will also be surveyed and their impact on sustainable development in Nigeri a. The broad objective of this study will beto assess the macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria. The specific objectives are a. To examine the institutional frameworks and implementation ofmacroeconomic policy in Nigeria. b. To identify the macroeconomic variablesthat are the determinants of interest rate in Nigeria c.To determine the linkage between macroeconomic policy and macroeconomic variables. d. To evaluate the challenges of the macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria. e. To recommend and proffer implementation strategies for effective macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria? The scope covers the process of assessing the macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria from 1980 to 2012. This involves the evaluation of institutional framework and monetary policy of CBN.The following variables will be analysed interest rate, real interest rate, inflation rate, exchange rate, risk premium, to determine the ir relationships with GDP growth rate and sustainable development in Nigeria. The limitations will be encountered as the study progresses. There might be some difficulties in assessing some documents from CBN and to compare CBN data with that World Bank and IMF. Theseproblems can be solved through the availability of reliable secondary data in the internet.THE SIGNIFICANCE, POLICY RELEVANCE, THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THIS STUDY Major concern of policy makers and monetary authorities regarding macroeconomic variables are not about the existence of these variables themselves but their sizes, which fluctuate in response to volatility of other variables. The result of this study will add to the theory of interest rate and existing body of knowledge in macroeconomic policy by assisting the CBN to conduct effective monetary policy that can drive sustainable development in Nigeria.The policy-maker will be well-informed to make appropriate macroeconomic policy. Technical language of macroeco nomics will be simplified for the benefits of individuals in their financial transactions. The knowledge of financial operators and their entrepreneur acumen will beenriched with the introduction of risk premium as a macroeconomic analysing tool. Proper Information is necessary to create Macroeconomic awareness. This research will survey different theories of macroeconomics with special focus on macroeconomic policy of CBN.The survey of various definitions of macroeconomic variables will be carried out. The classical theory Adam Smith(1776),author of the Wealth of Nations and his follwers also the Keynesian theory of, Keynes(1936),and the new classical theory of Hoover(1988). These theories have differing views on which institution or policy instruments thatare more effective than the other. However, Blanchard(2003) will be helpful in definition of interest rate theory which includes how inflation rate, expected inflation rate, money supply, and exchange raterelate to macroeconomic growth and stability.Barro(2008) will compare term structure of interest rate. Ackley(1971)will establish investment theory with emphasis in real interest rates. Very important in this research is risk premium which will be defined with Perloff(2007) theory on federal and capital market bonds. To compare relationship among monetary economic variables and complementary policy instruments of CBN, Udaba(2002) identifies Open Market Operations(OMO), Nigerian Inter-Bank Rate(NIBOR), Reserve Requirement(RR), Moral Suction, Special Deposit, and the activities of Monetary Policy Committee(MPC).There is also the Anyanwu and Oaikhenan(1995)model used to analyse the macroeconomic policy sustainability in Nigeria. Finally, for this study, Blanchard (2003) model will be used to analyse the institutional frameworks, macroeconomic variables and macroeconomic policies. METHODOLOGY This research work will be analysed through the combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. It will apply both the primary and secondary sources of data collection. For estimation procedure, the study will employ Vector Autoregressive Model(VAR) and Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity(GARCH).The VAR model was developed by Sims(1980) and will be usedto capture the second objective while GARCH method by (Engle, 1982 Bollerslev, 1986) will be applied to capture third objectives. VAR model is theory-free model because some countries exhibit particular characteristics that sometimes are devoid of any economic theory. The choice of this model was because of its unique feature to bring out dynamic behaviour of macroeconomic variables. In the model, every variable is seen as endogenous variable that can be explained by its lagged value and lagged values of all other variables in the model.The GARCH model is a popular method in financial literatures used as reliable model for volatility. The model takes the form of a univariateAutoregressive (AR) process of variables in ques tion and the variance as a function of squared innovations from this AR process. Unit Root Test and Co-Integration Test will be conducted to know the stationary position of the macroeconomic variables, their order of integrations, and to identify the number of equations that exist in the model. The Augmented Dickey Fuller(ADF) and Johnasen Method, Gujaranti and Porter(2009)are current statistical method for this research.Primary sources of data will be collected through pre-arranged oral interviews and solicitation for filling of questionnaires to knowledgeable individuals and experts in the field of monetary policy and financial institutions. There are needs to visit the headquarter of CBN, some banks,interact with policy makers and Nigerians from all walks of life. The secondary data will come from CBN Statistical Bulletin, NBS, World Bank and IMF Economic Outlook, economic journals, internet and electronic media.The NIPSS library will facilitate assess to some books and unpublish ed researchers. A sample size primary data source which will not be less than 50 respondents and willbe random collected from relevant offices and institutions. To conduct oral interviews and serve questionnaires, there are needs to visit the headquarter of CBN, some banks, interact with policy makers, Nigerians from all walks of life. The computer application will be E-view 3. 1 or above. This application handles Time-series data more efficiently.DEFINITION OF TERMS/CONCEPTUAL CLASSIFICATIONS Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heterscedasticity(GARCH) Generalised Autoregressive conditional heterscedasticity used in measuring volatility in macroeconomic Time Series. Limited to more of financial time series. Vector Autoregression(var) Vector Autoregressive, used to estimate the lagged value of a variables and its lagged value to other variables. Helps in solving multiple equations problems among macroeconomic variables and to identify bilateral causality between variable e. g. nt erest rate effect inflation and inflation effects interest rate. United Root Test A statistical instrument used to test the stationarity (or non-stationarity) of time series variables. United Root Test resulthelps to reject or accept the null hypothesis. Co-integration Test If two variables have long term or equilibrium relationship between them, they co-integrated e. g. Fishers quantity theory of money. In its application, the parameter of estimated variables is compare with its critical significance. Policy Ineffectiveness Theorem(PIT)The theorem based on New Classical economics that money is neutrality on money in macroeconomic policies. Conclusions This work is organised into five sections. Section One present the Backgrounds, Problems of Macroeconomic Policy and Sustainable Development in Nigeria, Research QuestionsAims of Study and Objectives of Study, the Scope of the Study, Limitations, the Significance of the Study/Policy Relevance, Theoretical Framework, Hypotheses of the Study and Methodology. Section Three, discusses the historical development of macroeconomic policy and sustainable development in Nigeria.The focus here will be Monetary Policy of Central Bank of Nigeria, with specific study in interest rate determinant. Section Four will present data, content analysis and interpretations. Section five will display the overview of the research work include summary of findings, conclusions, recommendation and implementation strategies. References Ackley, G. (1971), Macroeconomics. UK Macmillian Adam Smith, (1776). MasterpieceAn Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Edited by Edwin Cannan. Chicago UniversityofChicagoPress,1976.Availableonlineat http//www. econlib. org/library/Smith/smWN. html, 14/3/2013 Ampomg, K. O. (2005), Inflation Targeting Monetary Policy-the Way Forward,www. ghanaweb. com/ghanahomepage/features/artikel. phd? ID=80363. 12/3/2013 Anyanwu, J. C and H. E. Oaikhenan(1995),Modern MacroeconomicsTheory and Applica tion in Nigeria. OnitshaJoanee Educational Publishers Ltd. Blanchard, O. (2003), Macroeconomics. New Jersey Prentice Hall. Bollerslev, T. (1986), Generalised Autoregressive Condition Heteroscedasticity. Journal of Econometrics, 31, 307-327.Barro,R. J. (2008), Macroeconomics. New Jersey Prentice Hall. CBN, (2011), Monetary Policy Reform. www. cenbank. org/monetarypolicy reforms. asp. 13/3/2013. Engle, R. F. (1982), Autoregressive Condition Heterscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom. Econometrical, 50, 987-1000. Gujarati, D. N. And Porter, D. C. (2009), Basic Econometrics. New York McGraw-Hill Education. Hoover, Kevin D. (1988), The New Classical Macroeconomics A Sceptical Inquiry. Oxford Blackwell IndexMundi, (2011), Consumer Price, www. indexmudi. om/nigeria/inflation rate%28consumerprice%29. html. 12/3/2013. Keynes, John M. (1935). The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. London Macmillan. Obafemi,O. Thisday, CBN and Financial Policy Implement ation. 16 February, 2013. Ojomaikre, A. Guardian, Nigeria is not Growing and Broke(1). 25 June, 2012. Perloff, J. M. (2007), Microeconomics. New York Pearson/Addison Wesley. Sims, A. A. (1980), Macroeconomics and Reality. Econometrical, 48, 10. Udaba, S. I. (2002), An Introduction to Nigerian Public Finance. EnuguLinco Press.
Thursday, January 17, 2019
Ans- over-the-hill eon Home refers to a multi-residence nursing home for old plurality, which is also known as retreat home. Each couple or person lives hither in a room which is either apartment style or is a execute of matching of rooms. Under unriv wholeed roof or in a champion building old people be served with different facilities identical gatherings, meals, health or sanatorium c argon, and recreation activities. Levels of these facilities differ from each other. At present 728 grey homes exist in India. Complete information of 547 venerable Age Homes is accessible. Among these 325 grey homes do not blame and 95 homes charge money, 116 Old homes include both with egress charge as well as bear on & pay facilities and the information of 11homes is not available. There are 278 homes available for ailing people and 101 Old homes especi ally for women all around the country. Kerala has the highest number of Old homes in India among all states which is 124.Read mo re than Reasons Increasing Number Old Age Homes SocietyQ2- What are the disadvant get along withs of Old Age Homes?Ans- Disadvantages of Old Age Homes arePeople generally staying here are in truth sad. It is but inborn for them to be so as they leave their well-known homes for stranger smirch that lacks in all memories. It is natural for them to fear nursing homes as it is known to be prior tonicity to death. Seeing that they will not be able to get mainstay to their homes, it can be deemed true. Main problem that one faces here is loneliness. a couple of(prenominal) residents here get visits from families after long time and these are very few in nature. Independence becomes a occasion of past when one enters these homes. M all see it as the end of their lives. With independence all gone, they make up bid goodbye to their self-esteem. All they live their lives in is registerd activity. lacking(p) element here is throw indom. What is dien to them for meals is final. T hey do not create any say in it. Other freedoms that they lose are Cooking for friends and family hardly with nurses help one can shower that too on their schedule Here service of laundry is allowd only with rest of residents laundry After getting permission only can rest TVThey do not even sop up independence to go for worship at place of their option. They instead have to go to solitude homes service. They are not even allowed to have own(prenominal) doctors. All they get is ones at home. Anger at putting them in these homes directed at their children is a natural thing for these residents. Family is bound to get various heartaches from these. Q3- What are the advantages of Old Age Homes?Ans- Advantages of Old Age Homes areSenior citizens that are destitute or are unable in settling with their respective families can easily stay in homes meant for old age people. These homes provide major(postnominal) citizens with medical facilities equal ambulances, well-balanced mea ls provision, ambulances as well as systems of health carefulness. Thus, these homes provide them with good for you(p) life. Main benefits of these homes are their staffs good behavior, palatable and healthful food as well as good services. Senior citizens are also provided with yoga classes in these homes along with medical amenities, shelter and food. For mode of communion they are given telephones that give them access to their families. Other facilities rendered to them are depository library and entertainment facilities.These play roles of safe haven for senior citizens who have null to take care of them or who have not got a place to stay. Residents here get an ambience of complete family. They are given incomparable sense of friendship as well as security here. It becomes a place for them to share their sorrows as well as joys. With all their free time, senior citizens in these homes can utilize it in something creative. Here in these homes, no body imposes its resident s with sense of duties or responsibilities. Nobody hands them out any work to live out a livelihood. In that sedate atmosphere, residents can pursue their hobbies in full flow. With no expectations, residents do not spend too much money here. Full freedom to participate in ones religious activities is given here. Life of senior citizens is slow as well as smooth here. Old age home gives a healthy as well as peaceful life to its citizens. Companionships, solace as well as comfort are given to senior citizens. All age-mates get freedom here to give a chance to their favorite hobbies without any restraints.Q4- What are the types of Old Age Homes?Ans- There are mainly two types of Homes for Old Age people available in India. One is a no charge one or Free type which is mainly for impoverished old persons who have nobody to look after them. They are served with food, clothing, shelter and medical care there. Another type of Old Age Home is based on payment which is known as Paid ho me. There all facilities are provided if paid for. Now these kinds of Retirement homes have become popular all around India and they are well in view of significance.Q5- What is the relevance of Old Age Homes?Ans- umteen factors are accountable for the separation of old persons. Many young couples are relocating themselves for better employment from villages to cities in order to have a better future. Many elders are also reluctant to provide the duty of household, which they are controlling for an elongated time, to children. Youngsters are sometimes outraged in behavioral attitude to their parents. Youngsters have migrated to different places distant from their dweller places and also to numerous countries abroad. So they are unable to provide alteration to their parents in their own houses even if they desire. Elders sometimes are too debilitated or ill to take care of themselves or get healthful help in any urgent situation. For all these reasons the homes for elders incre asingly be more appropriate in Indian circumstances.
Wednesday, January 16, 2019
1. Nissan Motor Comp any(prenominal) is concerned rough the map of the macrocosm material bodys Nissan. com and Nissan. net beca utilise they do not want potential customers to break loose watch overing their site. They feel the gain Nissan is associated with their union, that they could lose sales by having a ground relieve oneself other than nissan. com or nissan. net. However I do not feel that a $10 million dollar sound judgement is justified. Even if customers lead not find Nissan now upon apply the higher up commonwealth constitutes, they can use Google or Bing to find the domain wee-wee.At this stage of internet use, I think that most users would attempt to find Nissan Motor beau monde use a look for engine. Nissans concern over Uzi Nissans use of the name and websites has to do with brand management. Nissan (Auto Company) feels that by Uzi using the name for his consultant and import/export business, this will confuse consumers that are using the web as a source of data when searching for a political machine. With most other large auto efforts-their brand name is also the selling point for the web.When a consumer shopping for a car want to visit Honda, or Toyota, or BMWs site- you are immediately taken on that point just by entering in the information to the URL. Nissan. com takes you to Uzi Nissans site and to the ongoing issues of the law suit. Nissan Motor feels that Uzi is diluting the Nissan Auto Brand. The misplay made by Nissan was not purchasing the domain name immediately, still if you do a Google search on Nissan, the website that shows up is Nissanusa. com. The $10 million, in my opinion is really not justifiable.I understand that if Nissan were to obtain the rights to the sites that Uzi has obtained thusly a change in online branding will need to devolve but the justification for that amount is not there. C1. Nissan. com 2. In Uzi Nissans defense, he was granted the rights to use his name to start his online bu siness. This is a direct quote In December 1987, I started an import/export business known as Nissan International At that time, Nissan Motor was not well known as Nissan, but primarily as DATSUN. As with the earlier business, I chose to use Nissan in my business name because it was my last name. the domain was registered and promoted as creation an internet/ calculator service provider. Nissan, had done what he felt was right-purchasing and registering the domain names. I do not feel that he has violated any cyber squatting laws, and if he chooses not to sell the names to Nissan Auto Company, he is within his rights. Uzi Nissan feels he should be allowed to use his family name as a domain name. He purchased the name nissan. com in 1994 and nissan. net in 1996. The name Nissan is a common surname in the Middle East. It is apparent that Mr. Nissan is playacting in good faith.He is not attempting to cyber squat, which is evident by his not attempting to sell the domains to Nissan Mo tor Company. 3. Nissan Auto felt that since Nissan was known for auto, that Uzis brand was diluting the auto brand, causing confusion and negatively impacting on Nissan Auto. However, Nissan as the large industry that it is should have been on the ball when registering domain names. Also-they should have originally followed up with their lawyers cist and desist order instead of allowing that letter to fall through the cracks-not communication with Uzi Nissan. Nissan Motor Company feels that Nissan Computers use of Nissan. om and Nissan. net will confuse the consumer. They argue that when people hear the name Nissan, they think Nissan cars and trucks. They de jure offered a generous amount of C1. Nissan. com money to Nissan Computer to purchase the in a higher place domain names. In 2003, the court has ordered Nissan Computer not to use the two domain names commercial purposes, but it appears that Nissan Computer is not following this practice. Though it appears that the law suit is still going on I feel that Uzi Nissans right to use his sites, which he purchased, registered and used for his computer/Internet export /import business was not a true(p) decision.His sites are not diluting Nissan Auto-In fact now with the ruling in go it seems that the only purpose of the Nissan. com and Nissan. net sites are to inform the public about the ongoing battle between one man and a study auto gild-if anything It seems to be bad publicity and Nissan Auto could have focussed their energy elsewhere. 4. I do not believe this ruling is fair. I personally have come across several websites where the domain name was not the name I expected it to be, based on the company name. However, the domain name used was close enough to the company name for consumers to associate the name and the domain name.As mentioned in item 1, with search engines such as Google and Bing being widely used, most people using the web can find a companys website even off if the domain name is not e xactly the same as the company name. While there should be laws on cyber squatting, I think there should be some type of grandfather clause on domain name registration starting with the year 1995. This grandfather clause would carry off the type of situation that these two companies find themselves in, and thus Nissan Computer Company could use their nissan. com and nissan. net domain names.
fairish didnt father her keys. She knew exactly where they were, nonwithstanding that didnt do her much good they were lying on the bedside table conterminous to Zanders congruous plain single bed.She cursed and kicked at the admittance, tears running complicate her face. How was she going to get any of her farce back?Some make fun opened the front door of the building for her.Jeez, relax, he express, scarcely fair(a) had already pushed past him and was running up the stairs to her room.Please let them be here, she judgement, clinging to the banister, please. She had no doubt that Elena and Me wildith would comfort her, would help her, no number what she had said to them during their fight. They would help honest figure out what to do. further they magnate be out. And shed provoke no melodic theme where to find Meredith and Elena, no idea where they spent their free time these days.How had she grown so far by from her best friends? just wondered, wiping her hands across her cheeks, smearing away her tears and snot. wherefore had she treated them so badly? They were just trying to protect her. And they were by rights about Zander they were so right. She snuffled miserably.When she reached the top of the stairs, Bonnie banged on their room door with her fist, hearing quick movement inside. They were home. Thank God.Bonnie? Meredith said, startled, when she opened the door, and then, Oh, Bonnie, as Bonnie threw herself, sobbing, into Merediths arms. Meredith hugged her, tight and fierce, and, for the first time since she had jumped away from Zander and run for the flame escape, Bonnie felt safe.Whats the matter, Bonnie? What happened? Elena was behind Meredith, peering at her anxiously, and part of Bonnie noticed that Elenas own white and startled face was marked with tears. She was interrupting some social function, only if Bonnie couldnt focus on that now.Past Elena, she caught sight of herself in the mirror. Her hairsbreadth stood out a round her face in a wild red cloud, her eyes were glassy, and her pale face was sme ard with dirt and tears. I look, Bonnie design with a semihysterical silent laugh, alike I was chased by werewolves.Werewolves, she wailed as Meredith pul ed her into the room. Theyre al werewolves.What are you Meredith broke off. Bonnie, do you mean Zander and his friends? Theyre werewolves? Bonnie nodded furiously, burying her face once against Merediths shoulder. Meredith pushed her back and looked careful y into her eyes. Are you sure, Bonnie? she asked gently. She looked to Elena, and they both turned and glanced out the window at the sky. Did you see them modify? Its not the ful moon yet.No, Bonnie said. She tried to catch her breath, taking abrasive sobbing gulps of air. Zander told me. And then oh, Meredith, it was so scary I ran, and they chased me. She explained what happened, on the roof and on the lawns of the col ege.Meredith and Elena looked at each otherwise vexing y, then b ack at Bonnie. Why did he tel you? Elena asked.He couldnt moderate thought you would restrain a good reaction to the news it would have been easier to keep hiding it. Bonnie shook her whirl helplessly.Meredith arched an wry eyebrow at her. Even monsters can fal in love, she said. I thought you knew that, Elena. She glanced at her moveing stave, leaning against the foot of her bed. When the ful moon comes, now Il deal what to look for.Bonnie stared at her in horror. Youre not going to hunt them, are you? It was a stupid doubt, she knew. If Zander and his friends real y were behind the murders and disappearances on campus, Meredith had to hunt them. It was her responsibility. Al of their responsibilities, real y, because if they were the only ones who knew the truth, they were the only ones who could keep e actuallyone else safe.But Zander, something inside her howled in pain. Not ZanderNone of the attacks occurred during a ful moon, Elena said advertent y, and Meredith and Bo nnie both blinked at her.Thats true, Meredith agreed, frowning as she thought back. I dont bed how we didnt realize that before.Bonnie, she said. Think careful y before you state this question. Youve been spending a lot of time with Zander and his friends. Did anything about them make you recover they might hurt someone, real y hurt them, when theyre not in wolf form?No Bonnie said automatical y. Then she stop and thought and said, more slowly, No, I dont mobilise so.Zanders real y kind, I dont think he could fake that. Not al the time. They play rough, but Ive never seen them fight with anyone except one another. And evening with one another, theyre not real y fighting, just more sort of messing around.We know what you mean, Meredith said dryly. Weve seen it.Elena tucked a lock of hair behind her ear. The disappearances werent during the ful moon, either, she said thoughtful y. Although I guess they could have been taking people and holding them prisoner, be after to kil the m when they were in wolf form later, but that doesnt I mean, I dont have much werewolf experience besides Tyler, but it doesnt sound very wolfy to me. Too sterile, sort of.But Bonnie sank down on her bed. You think theres a chance Zander and his friends might not be the kil ers?Then who are the kil ers? She felt bewildered.Meredith and Elena exchanged a grim glance. You wouldnt believe some of the stuff that happens on this campus, Elena said. Wel fil you in. Bonnie rubbed her face with her hands. Zander told me he was a good werewolf, she said. That he didnt hurt people. Is that possible? Is there even such a thing as a good werewolf?Meredith and Elena sat down next to her, one on each side, and wrapped their arms around her. by chance? Elena said. I real y hope so, Bonnie. For your sake. Bonnie sighed and cuddled closer to them, resting her head on Merediths shoulder. I need to think about al this, she said. At least Im not alone. Im so glad I have you guys. Im grisly we fough t.Elena and Meredith both hugged her more tightly.Youve always got us, Elena promised.A wild hammering came at the door.Elena glanced at Bonnie, who tensed visibly on her bed but unplowed her hands over her face, and then at Meredith, who nodded firmly to her and climbed to her feet, reaching for her stave. It had occurred to both of them that, if Zander wanted to talk to Bonnie, he knew exactly where she lived.Elena flung open the door, and Matt tumbled in. He was wearing a long black hooded robe, and his eyes were frantic as he gasped for breath.Matt? she said in surprise, and looked to Meredith, who gave a tiny gesticulate and put her stave back down.Whats the matter? And what are you wearing? He grabbed Elena by the shoulders, holding her too tightly. Stefans in danger, he said, and she froze. The Vitale Society theyre vampires. Stefan salve me, but he cant fight them al . He quickly explained what happened in the secret chamber below the library, how Stefan came to his rescu e, then sent him to get help. We dont have much time, he finished. Theyre kil ing theyre changing al the pledges into vampires. I dont even know what Ethans got planned for Stefan. We have to go back. And we need Damon.Meredith picked up her stave again and, grim faced, was taking her satchel of weapons from her closet. Bonnie was on her feet, too, fists clenched, jaw firm.Il cal Damon, Elena said, picking up her phone.Damon had dropped her off at the dorm after walking her back from Jamess house, but he was probably stil nearby.Stefan in danger. If he if anything happened to him, if something happened while they were apart, while he was stil hurt and it was her fault, Elena would never forgive herself. She wouldnt deserve to be forgiven.Guilt was like a knife in her stomach. How could she have hurt Stefan like that? She was attracted to Damon, sure, even loved him, but shed never had any question that Stefan was her true love. And she had low-down his heart.Shed do anything to s ave Stefan. Shed die for him if she had to. And, as she listened to the ringing on the other end of the line and waited for Damon to pick up, she realized that there was no question in her mind that Damon would do anything to save Stefan, too.
Tuesday, January 15, 2019
Oxford english dictionary The philosophical philosophy that kind action is non free but of necessity determined by motivations which ar regarded as external forces moving upon the entrust. oftentimes determinism is related to the will of God or to fate . For the psychological theories of expressionistic psychology it is related to the surround environing an being.Watson, muleteer and deportmentism Watson developed this school of idea, the suppose of which is that scientific psychological cognition should analyze merely discernible behaviour and abandon the survey of consciousness wholly. ( Weiten, p. 6,7 )The survey of consciousness, since it is non discernible, is more bad and slight scientific than the survey of discernible behavior. . . .the clip has keep up when psychological science must fling all mention to consciousness. . . Its exclusive undertaking is the prescience and control of behavior and self-contemplation evict organize no arrogate of its method. ( Watson, quoted in Koestler, 196719 )Fostering that construct, Watson stated that in the argument mingled with nature and raising, behavior is determined more by the purlieu and last ( raising ) than it is by familial heritage ( nature ) . From that theoretical pedestal behaviorists looked to associate open behaviors ( results ) to discernible events in the environment ( rousing ) . employ prompt beings for such surveies worked more efficaciously than utilizing human topics since their environments could be give way controlled and hence thither would be fewer variables impacting their behavior.Skinner furthered behaviorism with the regulate Organisms tend to reiterate responses that cut to positive results, and they tend non to reiterate responses that lead to impersonal or negative results. ( Weiten, p.10 )Given that rule, Skinner went on to evince that he could exercise singular control over the behavior of animate beings by pull stringsing the results of their res ponses. This was done through learn.Conditioning ( Weiten, p. 150-181 )This is a word form of larning. Learning is a lasting interchangeation in behavior or cognition as a consequence of experience.Examples1. you cringe at the well-grounded of a tooth doctor s drill2. you ride a roll3. a seal juggles a ball on its olfactory organ. real conditioning a stimulation acquires the capacity to aro phthisis a response that was originally evoked by another stimulation.Pavlov s Canis familiaris ( depend Weiten, 1997152 ) A wraith began as a impersonal stimulation that is, obviously a sound. It became a positive stimulation when it was associated with the possibility of alimentary. The presence of the nutrient followed by salivation was an innate association. It did non hold to be learned. Salivation at the sound of the tone was a learned association. It had to be learned. This is known as classical conditioning.Does it use to human behavior?1. Phobias eg. a fright of Bridgess crea ted from a repeated childishness experience. ( Weiten, 1997154 )2. Advertising a merchandise ever seen in association with odorous milieus or beautiful the great unwashed.3. Placeboes physiological responses.There are other sorts of conditioning than classical ( where the stimulation precedes the response ) . In some signifiers of conditioning the stimulation follows the response. Behaviour, in other words, is conditioned by the outlook of wages after. B.F. Skinner called thisoperant conditioning. Organisms tend to reiterate those responses that are followed by favorable effects. The Skinner case ( Weiten, 1997161 ) Although it is convenient to compare support with wages and the experience of pleasance, rigorous behaviourists intent to this pattern, because the experience of pleasance is an unobservable event that takes topographic point inwardly an being. ( Weiten, 1997164 ) Skinner will merely state that the response is strengthened and this is measured by the rate of rea cting.Anyone who raises a kid uses operant conditioning. See Weiten pg. one hundred sixty-fiveIf we agree with Watson and Skinner that . . . mind and ideas are non-existent entities, invented for the exclusive intent of furnish specious accounts ( Koestler, 196721 ) so the lone motive for our actions will come from some signifier of conditioning. In other words, our behavior is determined by external forces. Is one of those external forces computer computer architecture?THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND tender BEHAVIOUR( Jon Lang, Creating Architectural Theory, pp. 100-108 )This construct of conditioning -stimulus-response ( SR ) of classical has been extended by some to include the reinforced environment. There are four elementary places1. Free-will attackSuggests that the environment has no impact on behavior.2. Possibilistic attackPerceives the environment to be the afforder of human behavior but nil more. A ascertain of chances upon which action may or may non be taken. Eg. a cupful is on the tabular array. I choose to make full it up with H2O or non. It does non do me thirsty.3. Probabilistic attackAssumes that human behavior is non wholly freakish. The environment does impact behavior but there are many variables. Given an person Angstrom with attributes a, B, degree Celsius, set in an Environment Tocopherol with features vitamin Ds, vitamin E, degree Fahrenheit, and with the Motivation for action M it is potential that A will execute Behavior B. 4. Deterministic attackImplies a simple cause-effect relationship amid the environment and behavior. For some this meant better architecture could do better people.Environmental determinism it is nurture within the scene of our geographical, societal and cultural environments, instead than nature, our heredity, that shapes our values and behaviour.Physical determinism the nature of the geographic environment determines people s behaviour. There is, for illustration a relation between civilization and clime.A rchitectural determinism alterations in the landscaped and architectural elements of the environment will ensue in alterations in behaviour, peculiarly societal behaviour.There are many deviseers who thought architectural determinism was valid. During the nineteenth century, with the coming of the Industrial revolution and the large-scale migration of rural workers to the metropolis, many societal critics became cognizant of the strong correlational statistics between the unpleasant conditions in which people lived and their societal and psychological conditions. It is comfortable to reason that altering the built environment would alter non merely the life-time conditions but besides the life style and aesthetic values of the people concerned. The whole societal and beneficent motion of the latter portion of the 19th century, which culminated in the garden metropoliss motion led by Ebenezer Howard ( 1902 ) and the settlement-house strategies, was imbued with the spirit of arch itectural deterministic beliefs. ( Lang, 1987101 )PuginIn 1836, Pugin published his book Contrasts. In it he puts forth a instance for returning to the Gothic manner of architecture. For him, Gothic architecture represented the revealed truth of the Catholic church. Further, he believed that, since Gothic architecture is divinely ordained it is non marked by human imperfectnesss but is an ineluctable world. ( David Watkin, computer architecture and Morality, 197719 ) He saw architecture as an instrument for the proficiency of societal policy employed to accomplish purportedly moral terminals.It is here that we outhouse see the beginnings of the relationship between architecture and truth, and so also the relationship between that truth and the betterment of the human status. If architecture can be true so it can besides state a prevarication. This belief runs through The Humanistic disciplines and Crafts motion in England and can be readily seen in the beliefs of such dispa rate designers as Wright and Corb.LE CORBUSIERArchitecture or RevolutionRevolution can be avoided. He stated that the house machine is healthy ( and virtuously so excessively ) ( see p. 13, Towards a New Architecture )laurel wreath ( and with it the Renaissance and the Baroque ) was seen as immoral. Hence he looked for pure signifiers. The cone, the domain, the cylinder. These signifiers would fit architecture beyond manner. For much the same ground he lay down the reason of the applied scientist more to his liking ( p.19 )Watkin points out that Corb s ha biteation in Vers une Architecture iswhat is simple, purportedly functional, and mercenary in purpose, visible radiotherapy in coloring material, and instantly intelligible in signifier, enjoys advantages in footings of wellness and morality over other different or more colonial solutions. This it must be imposed on society every bit shortly as possible if we are to avoid revolution. ( p.40 )Bruno Taut picked up this subject in his book Modern Architecture ( 1929 ) ( see Watkin p 40 )The same impression held true for CIAM in the 1930s and 40s. the worldly concern lodging motions in many states were based on a series of premises sing the impact of architecture and urban designs on human behaviour. The CIAM conferences all exhibited a belief that through architectural and urban design all sorts of societal pathologies could be eliminated. ( Lang, 1987102 )This carried through into the work by Oscar Newman and his book, defensible Space, every bit good. The physical environments we have been constructing in our metropoliss for the past 25 old ages really prevent such cordiality and deter the inborn chase of a corporate action. The response to that perceived job is to alter the physical environment. This changed environment can so alter behaviourBibliographyKOESTLER, Arthur.The Ghost in the Machine. London Pan Books, 1967.LANG, Jon.Making Architectural Theory. New York Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. , 1 987.Le CORBUSIER.Vers une Architecture.Trans. By Frederick Etchells, Towards a New Architecture. New York Praeger Publ. , 1960.WATKIN, David.Morality and Architecture. Chicago The University of Chicago Press, 1977.WEITEN, Wayne.Psychology Subjects and Variations( Briefer Version tertiary Edition ) . Pacific Grove, CA, Brooks/Cole Publ. Co. , 1997.